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Supporting Implementation Fidelity: Coaching Early Educators

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  1. Supporting Implementation Fidelity: Coaching Early Educators Lise Fox, University of South Florida Mary Louise Hemmeter, Vanderbilt University Pat Snyder and Tara McLaughlin, University of Florida

  2. Two Intervention-Based Projects Embedded Instruction for Early Learning Tools for Teachers (TfT) Evaluating the Efficacy of the Teaching Pyramid Model: Using the TPOT Helping preschool teachers in early learning programs learn how to use effective supports and instruction for young children with disabilities Helping early childhood practitioners use classroom prevention and intervention strategies that promote young children's social-emotional development and prevent challenging behavior

  3. According to NPDCI, the key components of professional development include: • (a) the characteristics and contexts of the learners (i.e., the "who" of professional development, including the characteristics and contexts of the learners and the children and families they serve); • (b) content (i.e., the "what" of professional development; what professionals should know and be able to do; generally defined by professional competencies, standards, and credentials); and • (c) the organization and facilitation of learning experiences (i.e., the "how" of professional development; the approaches, models, or methods used to support self-directed, experientially-oriented learning that is highly relevant to practice).

  4. Rationale for Coaching Approaches • High-quality materials and PD workshops not sufficient for use of evidence-informed practices in practice settings • Difficult to define impacts of coaching in EC PD • Variants and descriptions of coaching not well distinguished in the literature • Some empirical support for efficacy of performance feedback in relation to implementation fidelity • Few studies focused on self-monitoring as a form of “coaching” and in relation to implementation fidelity

  5. Two forms of coaching On-site Coaching Self-Coaching

  6. Similar components; different delivery On-site Coaching (Teacher and Coach) Self-Coaching (Teacher and Web-based Supports) Entry and orientation to the website (1-hour orientation) Learn about the website and self-coaching process, explore website features and how to use the web-based supports to coach. Goal setting Use the online forms to identify personal development goals and graphing tool plan weekly implementation goals. Self-monitoring Work toward personal development goals and collect and record data on implementation goals. Self-evaluation Use self-coaching checklist to guide evaluation and reflection of goals, and use graphing tool to evaluate implementation . Action plan (problem solving) & Resource seeking Select weekly goals, develop an action plan for weekly goals, and use available resources on web site to problem solve when situations arise. Entry and relationship building (First 3 sessions) Learn about the teacher, the classroom and the teachers’ goals, share information about the coaching process, and provide supportive feedback. Goal setting Work with teacher to identify personal development goals and weekly implementation goals. Observation Observe in the classroom, engage in coaching strategies as needed. Feedback Discuss observation, provide supportive and corrective feedback , engage in coaching strategies as needed, support teacher reflection and future planning. Action plan (problem solving) Identify weekly goals, develop a plan for successful implementation , and provide resources and supports as needed.

  7. On-site Coaching

  8. Evaluating the Efficacy of the Teaching Pyramid Intervention • Who • Preschool teachers in classrooms that include children with and without disabilities • Teachers in preschool classrooms • What • Teaching Pyramid practices • How • High quality workshops • Provision of classroom materials • Coaching with performance feedback in classroom

  9. The Pyramid Model: Promoting Social and Emotional Competence and Addressing Challenging Behavior Few Children Some Children All Children

  10. Coaching Teachers in Implementing the Pyramid Implementing it in daily practice Hearing about it in training

  11. Teaching Pyramid Coaching Process • Preparing for Coaching • Conduct baseline observations using the TPOT • Meet with teacher to review TPOT and develop action plan • Observe teacher with a focus on action plan items • Use specific TPOT items • Use other observational measures • Model, feedback, and provide suggestions as planned • Debrief with teacher • Provide positive performance feedback • Provide corrective performance feedback • Discuss issues related to individual children • Develop implementation steps • Plan for next observation • Use a variety of strategies (e.g., video, problem solving)

  12. Follow-up: • Provide email feedback following meetings • Provide materials as needed • Support teacher around developing plans for children at the top of the Pyramid

  13. Let’s look at it—written debrief open the e-mail provide supportive performance feedback provide corrective performance feedback provide targeted support support planned actions end the e-mail Hi ----, I enjoyed observing in your classroom today. I can¹t believe how well Mary is doing with her writing. She picked several words from the word wall today and wrote them on the dry erase board. She did a great job! I was able to read all of the letters and she was able to tell me each word. I continue to be amazed at her progress. You did a great job of embedding many learning trials into small group and centers. Almost all of the trials were complete with an antecedent, behavior, and consequence or error correction. I observed 4 trials for engagement, six for counting/matching numerals, and two social bids. I also observed Ms. Rogers providing two engagement trials. You have done an excellent job of instructing your paraprofessionals in delivering complete learning trials. You make such good use of their expertise in the classroom. Having them as support I am sure makes your job a little easier. I noticed that today you delivered several trials for the counting/matching numeral goal. This was great and Mary seemed to respond well. I did notice, however, that by the time she got to the center where she was counting chicks she did not seem as interested in counting. I don¹t think there is anything wrong with the activity, but perhaps because it came right after the counting at the sensory table she seemed to lose interest quickly. One suggestion might be to separate those activities so that they are not back to back. This will give her time to complete other activities in between and increase her interest level when she works on counting again. Just to follow-up on our conversation on Wednesday regarding embedding sequencing trials, you do have many natural opportunities to do this throughout your day. Anytime Mary completes a multi-step activity you could have her tell you how she completed the activity. I have observed you doing this with puzzles, art projects, and in dramatic play. Other activities that require a sequence of steps occur multiple times throughout the day. One strategy I used to use is having children tell me the centers they visited each day in the correct sequence. This is just one idea. It is just a matter of taking advantage of naturally occurring opportunities and this is something you do very well. You might try planning some activities with this focus. I will be in around 9:00 on Wednesday. I am planning to stay to meet with you at 1:15. I would like to discuss your progress on data collection and any other issues or concerns that you have.. You are doing a fabulous job. Please feel free to email or call if you have any questions. I look forward to seeing you next week.

  14. The Teaching Pyramid Observation Tool (TPOT) The TPOT was developed to measure the extent to which the Teaching Pyramid practices are being implemented in a classroom Provides information that can be used to identify training needs of teachers

  15. Using the TPOT • Observations • Conducted for a minimum of 2 hours • Must observe centers or free play and at least one teacher-directed activity • Focus of observation is lead teacher’s behavior • Interviews • For those practices that cannot be observed in a 2-hour observation

  16. Format of the TPOT • Three types of Items • Environmental items (Items 1-7) - yes/no based on observation • Ratings of practices (items 8-22) - ratings based on observation and/or teacher report • Red Flags (items 23-38) - yes/no based on observation

  17. Environmental Arrangement Items - Clear boundaries - Move easily around room - Lack of large open spaces - Adequate number of centers - Materials support play - Preparation of centers - Classroom rules

  18. TPOT Items Based Primarily on Observations • Schedule and Routines • Transitions between activities • Teachers engage in supportive conversations with children • Promoting children’s engagement • Teaching children behavior expectations • Providing directions • Effective strategies to respond to problem behavior • Teaching social skills and emotional competencies • Teaching children to express emotions • Teaching problem solving • Supporting friendship skills

  19. TPOT Items Scored Based on Teacher Report Supporting children with persistent problem behavior Communication with families to promote involvement Involving families to support social emotional development and addressing problem behavior Strategies to build collaborative teaching with other adults

  20. Red Flag Items Represents issues related to teacher training, support, or program practices Indicates areas for immediate attention and training/support

  21. Sample Item 11. Promoting children’s engagement Notes:

  22. Sample Item 11. Promoting children’s engagement Notes:

  23. ENV = 7 Anchor= 2.87 Red Flags = 0

  24. ENV = 7/ 5 Anchor= .733 / 1.0667 Red Flags = 4 / 6

  25. What have we learned about coaching? • It takes a significant amount of coaching to get teachers to criterion levels of using the Pyramid practices • Teachers need help knowing where to start in terms of implementing the Pyramid practices • Teachers need help accessing and developing materials • Getting teachers focus on the bottom of the pyramid can be difficult • We may need a process for rolling out coaching

  26. Self-Coaching

  27. Embedded Instruction for Early Learning Tools for Teachers (TfT) “Coaching” in Tools for Teachers Impact of Professional Development on Preschool Teachers’ Use of Embedded Instruction Practices Institute of Education Sciences Project Number R324A070077

  28. Embedded Instruction for Early Learning: Tools for Teachers • Who • Preschool teachers in classrooms that include children with disabilities • Certified teachers, at least 2 years experience • What • Embedded instruction • Plan, implement, and evaluate embedded instruction practices with fidelity • How • High quality workshops and support materials • Coaching with performance feedback in classroom • Self-coaching with web-based supports

  29. Two forms of coaching On-site Coaching Self-Coaching

  30. Research Design • Phase II: Feasibility study • Multiple baseline across teachers • 3 variations • Phase III: Potential efficacy trial • Preschool teachers randomly assigned to conditions • Three conditions • Business-as-usual (no intervention) • Tools for Teachers workshops plus on-site coaching • Tools for Teachers workshops plus self-coaching


  32. Selecting Personal Goals

  33. Creating an Action Plan

  34. Self-Coaching Checklist

  35. The Graphing Tool

  36. Features of the Graphing Tool

  37. Daily Schedule

  38. Child Roster

  39. Adding New Learning Targets

  40. Trial Plan