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Coaching and Counseling

Coaching and Counseling

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Coaching and Counseling

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  1. Coaching and Counseling

  2. Coaching vs. Counseling Counseling stresses understanding. Coaching stresses action. Counseling asks why? (Why can't we be happy?") Coaching asks how? (How can we achieve happiness?") Obstacles are prominent in counseling. Opportunities are prominent in coaching.

  3. Counseling is psychological. Coaching is behavioral. Counseling is therapy. Coaching is education. Counseling is cure-oriented. Coaching is success-oriented.

  4. Questioning to check learning Questioning to raise awareness Feedback on performance Same Core Skills Feedback on awareness Organizational aspect considered Individual aspect Important Coaching Counseling Coach or Counselor?

  5. While managers can easily recognize the need for coaching when their employees have new jobs, duties or tools, managers often fail to diagnose the need for coaching when their employees are performing poorly.  • Counseling is the appropriate response when employees’ motivation problems are the cause of poor performance.  • But, managers need to remember that not all performance problems are due to a lack of motivation.  • Poor performance can also be the result of misunderstandings or a lack of skill.  • Many of us can recall a situation when a manager chastised us for screwing something up when all we really needed was a clarification of what was expected.  How demoralizing!

  6. Although coaching and counseling have different purposes, they're interrelated.  • Sometimes coaching reveals attitude problems, fears or other factors that interfere with the willingness to do one's job.  • When such barriers to motivation are identified, managers must shift into a counseling mode to resolve them before engaging in coaching.  • There's no point in working on employees' "Can't Do" problems before resolving their "Won't Do" problems. 

  7. By the same token, needs for coaching can also emerge during counseling.  • For instance, when an employee is intimidated by the complexity of a task, that fear can be manifested in a number of counterproductive work behaviors such as procrastination.  • Consequently, coaching is a remedy for some of the motivation problems that managers identify when counseling their employees.

  8. Exercise

  9. Coaching Skills • Develop a Better Understanding of the Four Fundamental Coaching Skills: • Observation • Questioning • Listening • Giving Feedback

  10. Observation • Observe and Not Judge • Do not judge the observed behaviors • Do not put your experience into their behavior • Do not look at situations in a black and white perspective • Do not jump to conclusions

  11. Question • Ask Questions That Elicit Information and Maintain a Dialogue • Do not ask yes or no answers • Ask open ended questions • Ask questions that need information to answer • Ask probing questions to elicit further information

  12. Listen • Listen to the Words and the Real Message • Listen to the emotions behind the words • Listen and watch the body language • Talk only to ensure understanding for what was heard

  13. Feedback • Provide Feedback That Structures Future Behaviors • Provide positive feedback even in negative situations • Ensure that any decisions are made by the person you are coaching • Show the importance of the whole, not just the individual

  14. Self-Assessment

  15. Steps in Coaching • There are four basic steps in coaching • Assess • Show and Explain • Check for Understanding • Follow up and Evaluate

  16. Assess • Put the employee at ease. • This step is important when the coaching session is a response to poor performance--it's not as important in other situations. • Find out what they already know. • There are two reasons for this.  • First, there's little use in telling them what they already know.  • Second, prior knowledge serves as the foundation for new knowledge that's acquired. 

  17. Hence, you want to link the "training" to what they already know and correct any misconceptions that could interfere with their learning.

  18. Show and Explain • Present information or demonstrate work methods.  • This is the point where you deliver the content of the training. • Repeat.  • Repetition enhances understanding and retention.

  19. Check for Understanding • Evaluate learning.  • Test whether the employee understands the information or can perform the skill. • This is more of a demonstrative kind of test. • Provide feedback.  • Let the employee know what they have successfully learned and what they still need to learn. • Correct.  • Show the right answers or methods again.

  20. Follow-up and Evaluate • Evaluate performance on the job.  • Periodically check to see whether the employee is using the knowledge or skills effectively on the job.  Gradually increase the interval at which you check.  The employee should eventually take responsibility for monitoring their own performance. • Reward.  • Provide praise or other rewards for successful acquisition and use of the knowledge or skill.

  21. Feedback • Focus on the situation or issue, not the person • Appreciative to Constructive ratio should be at least 2 to 1 • Use “I” instead of “You” when giving constructive feedback • Be specific and cite examples

  22. Stay focused on issues that the person can control • Make a recommendation or suggestion if appropriate • When listening to responses, listen openly • Focus on content, not the person

  23. What will you do if coaching fails • Discussion

  24. Coaching Concerns

  25. Future Focus Exercise

  26. Counseling • I don't think you can counsel your employees effectively if you don't truly care about them, because effective counseling can be hard work.  • Humans have emotions.  • People profit from the positive emotions like excitement and inspiration • We also have to accept and manage effectively the negative emotions such as anger, frustration, worry and arrogance 

  27. It takes work to deal with the negative side of employees' emotions.  • Managerial counseling requires listening effectively and constructive communication.  • It's a lot easier to just be a hard-nosed, "my-way-or-the-highway" manager.  Managers who can counsel their employees get the most out of them in difficult circumstances.

  28. Whether you are counseling or coaching in response to poor performance, the goal is the same • to get that poorly performing employee's performance back up to standards • or back into conformance with the rules. 

  29. What if you may come across a subordinate who is manipulative? • The best way to deal with them is to listen to their story at least once.  • Listening to their story and validating their feelings doesn't mean that you accept their poor performance or misconduct.  • After you've listened to their story and empathized, come up with a plan for improving performance. 

  30. Avoid asking pointed questions or making assumptions about your employees' personal lives.  • Legally and ethically, employees have a variety of privacy rights.  • Focus on the work-related problem.  • Even though the work-related problem is often the symptom of a personal problem only discuss the personal issues if the employee you're counseling raises them • Refer the employee to professional counseling for anything of a serious nature. 

  31. Appropriate: • You seem distracted at work and your productivity has fallenoff.  I really need you to be more productive.  Is there anything I can help you with? • Inappropriate: • Are you having marital problems? • I think your drinking in the evenings is interfering with your job performance.

  32. You can only comment on what you observe employees actually doing or the results they achieve.  • Making assumptions about personal problems is very risky and sometimes unfair.  • For instance, diabetics have occasionally been mistaken for alcoholics. 

  33. Prior to meeting with the employee … • Clarify exactly what the work-related problem is.  Be as specific and task-related as possible. • Determine what you think the cause might be. • If it's due to motivation, attitude or emotions, counseling is appropriate. • If it's due to a lack of knowledge or skill, counseling is unnecessary and coaching is appropriate.

  34. Know whether and how you can refer employees to your firm's employee assistance program (EAP) or other resources for help with personal problems.

  35. When meeting with the employee … • Be pleasant and put the employee at ease as much as possible under the circumstances. • The situation is tense just as it is. This will allow the employee to relax a little bit • Ask if they would like some water, etc.

  36. Describe the behaviors or aspects of job performance that are insufficient or unacceptable. • It is a good idea to infer that they should know this already, or to state the specific rules, to fend off the common response of “I didn’t know”

  37. Ask the employee what he or she thinks is causing the problem. • Listen actively and communicate supportively. • Don’t interrupt and reflect understanding of what is being said.

  38. Once the employee has had time to tell his or her story, ask the employee how he or she will correct the performance problem. • It is very important to have the employee discover their own “solution”. Your job is just to guide them to an effective one, not to advise one. • If it is seen as necessary, let the employee know how to get help with "any personal problems that might affect their job performance."  • But, be careful about making assumptions or asking questions about their personal problems.

  39. Help the employee make a realistic plan to solve the problem. • Again, don’t come up with the solution yourself, it must be their idea. • If it is not their idea, and it does not succeed, it becomes easy to blame you, because you told them to do it.

  40. If the problem is important, jointly create and sign an “FOSA” agreement. • Facts: Give a factual account of the performance or behavior. • Objectives: Specifically explain how the employee's behavior will need to improve and specify a time frame. • Solutions: Document how the employee plans to solve the problem. • Actions: Describe the consequences for not achieving the objective.

  41. Plan a follow-up meeting to assess whether the FOSA agreement's objectives were met. • No follow up is interpreted by the employee as showing the issue really was not important. • Explain that a follow-up report will be attached to the FOSA, so he or she will get credit for correcting the problem.

  42. Have the follow-up meeting, and deliver the agreed upon consequences (positive or negative).

  43. Counseling Concerns

  44. Future Focus Exercise