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Mental Illness & Suicide: Research & Interventions. Jane Pearson, Ph.D. National Institute of Mental Health. NIMH Mission Statement.

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Mental illness suicide research interventions l.jpg

Mental Illness & Suicide: Research & Interventions

Jane Pearson, Ph.D.

National Institute of Mental Health


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NIMH Mission Statement

Our mission is to reduce the burden of mental illness and behavioral disorders through research on mind, brain, and behavior…Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, autism, and other mental disorders are serious, often life-threatening illnesses for which we need reliable diagnostic tests, new treatments, and effective strategies for prevention…


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Risk Factors For Suicide Deaths

US/European Psychological Autopsy Studies:

At least 90% of suicide decedents had a mental or substance abuse disorder

Adolescents - depression, conduct disorder,

substance use, prior attempt

Adults - prior suicide attempt, depression,

alcohol dependence, schizophrenia

Older Adults - depression - late onset


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Revised Life-time Risk for Suicide Case Fatality Rates

Schizophrenia: first onset 5.6%; mixed time of onset samples 1.8%

Depression: any outpt tx 2%; any inpt tx 4%

any depression tx men 7%

any depression tx women 1%

Palmer et al (2005); Bostwick & Pankratz (2000)


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Service use patterns among suicide decedents in psychological autopsy studies; month before

Primary Care Mental Health

All ages 45% (20-76%) 19% (7-28%)

< 35 23% (10-36%) 15 % (7-32%)

55 + 58% (43-70%) 11% (8-14%)

Luoma, Martin & Pearson, 2002


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Leading causes of death for selected age groups – United States, 2002

1

Unintentional

Injuries

Unintentional

Injuries

Unintentional

Injuries

Malignant

Neoplasms

2

Malignant

Neoplasms

Homicide

Malignant

Neoplasms

Heart

Disease

3

Congenital

Malformations

Suicide

Heart

Disease

Unintentional

Injuries

4

Homicide

Malignant

Neoplasms

Suicide

Cerebro-

vascular

5

Suicide

Heart

Disease

Homicide

Diabetes

Mellitus

6

Heart

Disease

Congenital

Malformations

HIV

Chronic

Lower Respiratory Ds.

7

Other

Neoplasms

HIV

Liver

Disease

Liver

Disease

8

Chronic

Lower Respiratory Ds.

Cerebro-

vascular

Cerebro-

vascular

Suicide

15-24

5 - 14

25-44

45-64

Source: CDC vital statistics


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35 States, 2002

30

25

Eur-Amer Non-Latino

Afr-Amer Non-Latino

20

Rate per 100,000 population

Native American

15

Asian-PI

Latino

10

5

0

20-24

50-54

10-14

15-19

30-34

35-39

40-44

45-49

55-59

65-69

70-74

25-29

60-64

75-79

80-84

0-4

5-9

85 +

Suicide Rates by Ethnicity and Age Group United States, 1995-1999

Age Group in Years


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Public Health Burden of Suicide States, 2002

Deaths

Hospitalizations

Emergency Dept visits

Events reported on surveys

Unreported events


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Ratios Of Attempted Suicides to States, 2002Suicide Deaths

Young women 200:1

General population 10-20:1

Elderly 1-4:1

Fremouw WJM et al., Pergamon Press, 1990

Parkin D, Stengel E, Br Med J 2:133-138, 1965


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http://www.psych.org/psych_pract/treatg/quick_ref_guide/Suibehavs_QRG.pdfhttp://www.psych.org/psych_pract/treatg/quick_ref_guide/Suibehavs_QRG.pdf


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Suicide Prevention Resource Center: http://www.psych.org/psych_pract/treatg/quick_ref_guide/Suibehavs_QRG.pdfEffective or Promising Programs

  • Community-based (3)

  • Environmental (1)

  • Home-based (1)

  • School-based (8)

  • Treatment (4) 2 focused on depression

  • Workplace (1)

    http://www.sprc.org


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Recent Research Advanceshttp://www.psych.org/psych_pract/treatg/quick_ref_guide/Suibehavs_QRG.pdfNIMH Press Releases

July 3, 2006

  • Targeted Therapy Halves Suicide Attempts in Borderline Personality Disorder

    August 2, 2005

  • Cognitive Therapy Reduces Repeat Suicide Attempts by 50 Percent

    http://www.nih.nimh.gov