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Mental Health Disorders. Psychotherapy and residential placement as related services. Mental Health Disorders. What do serious diagnosable mental health disorders look like?. DSM-IV. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition. Mental Disorders.

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Mental Health Disorders


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    1. Mental Health Disorders Psychotherapy and residential placement as related services

    2. Mental Health Disorders What do serious diagnosable mental health disorders look like?

    3. DSM-IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition

    4. Mental Disorders • Definition considerations: • Mental disorders and physical disorders are not distinct. • No consistent operational definition that covers all situations. • Classification of disorders that people have—not people. • A current manifestation of a behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction.

    5. Mental Disorders • “…a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability (i.e. impairment in one or more important areas of functioning) or with a significant increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom”.

    6. Principal DSM-IV Diagnoses • Pervasive Developmental Disorders (Except Autistic Disorder) • Attention Deficit Disorder • Disruptive Behavior Disorders • Schizophrenia • Psychotic Disorders • Mood Disorders • Anxiety Disorders • Dissociative Disorders • Impulse Control Disorder • Adjustment Disorder • Personality Disorders

    7. Excluded DSM-IV Diagnoses • Mental Retardation • Learning Disorders • Motor Skills Disorder • Communication Disorder • Autistic Disorder • Tic Disorder • Delirium, Dementia • Substance-Related Disorder • Sleep Disorder • Antisocial Personality Disorder • Relational problems

    8. Clinical Significance Clinically significant impairment or distress is the common requirement of all mental disorder diagnoses

    9. Clinical Significance • Common criterion for all mental disorders • “…causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning”. (DSM-IV, p.7)

    10. Medical Necessity

    11. Medical Necessity • Definition Considerations: • A term of convenience that describes the qualification criteria for: • Medi-Cal or insurance funding. • The term is not used to distinguish between: • Mental disorders and general medical conditions • Mental disorders can be related to physical or biological factors. • General medical conditions can be related to behavioral or psychosocial factors or processes.

    12. CCR 9 1830.205

    13. Educational Necessity

    14. Educational Necessity • Definition Considerations: • Mental Health disorder must adversely impact educational performance. • Educational performance is a broader concept than academic performance • Mental disorder must have an impact on the ability of the child to function in the school environment by impeding: • Access to education, or • Ability to accomplish IEP goals • Mental health treatment is available to any child with a disability if it is necessary for the child to benefit from their special education.

    15. Epidemiology What is the incidence level of mental health disorders among children?

    16. An estimated 9% to 13% of American children and adolescents between the ages of nine to 17 have serious diagnosable emotional or behavioral health disorders resulting in substantial to extreme impairment. (Friedman, 2002) Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    17. Of those children with serious diagnosable emotional or behavioral disorders, less than 4% are identified as ED eligible for special education services. (Dataquest, CDE, 2009)

    18. Over 15% of all students with disabilities (6-21) are taking psychotropic medications. About 1/3 of all adolescent students with disabilities have been suspended or expelled. (USDOE, 2005) Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    19. Of children with disabilities with serious emotional or behavioral disorders, only about 1 in 5 received mental health services under AB3632. (Dataquest, CDE, 2009; LAO, 2010)

    20. Students with ED reported higher use of: alcohol (54%) illegal drug use (36%) marijuana use (33%) smoking (53%) than all other disability categories. (NLTS2, 2008) Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    21. More than 50% of students with ED drop out of grades 9-12, the highest rate among all disability categories. (U.S. Department of Education, 2002; 2006) Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    22. At 2 years post high school, 58% of youth with ED have been arrested at least once, and 42% are on probation or parole. (NLTS2, 2005). Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    23. It begins early… Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    24. Campbell (1995) estimated that approximately 10-15% of all typically developing preschool children have chronic mild to moderate levels of behavior problems. Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    25. Children who are poor are much more likely to develop behavior problems with prevalence rates that approach 30% (Qi & Kaiser, 2003). Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    26. Children who are identified as hard to manage at ages 3 and 4 have a high probability (50:50) of continuing to have difficulties into adolescence (Campbell & Ewing, 1990; Campbell, 1997; Egeland et al., 1990). Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    27. The correlation between preschool-age aggression and aggression at age 10 is higher than that for IQ. (Kazdin, 1995) Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    28. Early appearing aggressive behaviors are the best predictor of juvenile gang membership and violence. (Reid, 1993) Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    29. When aggressive and antisocial behavior has persisted to age 9, further intervention has a poor chance of success. (Dodge, 1993) Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    30. Student must be identified as a student with an emotional disturbance in order to qualify for mental health services. MYTH

    31. Mental health treatment is available to any child with a disability if it is necessary to benefit from special education.

    32. Mental Health Treatment by Disability

    33. Etiology How do mental health disorders develop?

    34. Environmental Factors • Fear, anxiety and trauma affect the developing brain.

    35. Environmental Factors • Prenatal Substance Exposure • Postnatal Exposure to Toxic Stress

    36. Family Factors • Harsh Parenting • Stressful Family Life Events • Low Social Support • Family Instability • Maternal Depression Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    37. Depression Hurts • Children of mothers who were depressed in their infancy are more likely to be delayed. • Children of depressed mothers are at increased risk for: • Language delays • Internalizing behavior problems • Depression, and mood disorders in adolescence Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    38. Early Predictors • Temperamental Difficulties • Early Aggression • Language Difficulties • Noncompliance Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    39. Sobering Facts… Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    40. Young Children with Challenging Behavior • Are rejected by peers • Receive less positive feedback • Do worse in school • Are less likely to be successful in kindergarten Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    41. Preschool children are three times more likely to be “expelled” than children in grades K-12 (Gilliam, 2005) Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    42. Faculty in higher education early childhood programs report that their graduates are least likely to be prepared to work with children with persistently challenging behavior (Hemmeter, Santos, & Ostrosky, 2004). Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    43. Of the young children who need mental health services, it has been estimated that fewer than 10% receive services for these difficulties. (Kataoka, Zhang, & Wells, 2002) Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    44. In a Typical Kindergarten Class in California • 6 children will manifest significant problem behaviors. • Only 1 in every 2 classes will receive help. • 4 children will continue to exhibit aggressive behaviors at age 10 with little chance for successful intervention

    45. There are evidence-based practices that are effective in changing this developmental trajectory…the problem is not what to do, but rests in ensuring access to intervention and support (Kazdin & Whitley, 2006). Center for Evidence Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior www.challengingbehavior.org

    46. Services What do evidence-based mental health treatment look like?

    47. Student must be identified as a student with a disability in order to benefit from mental health services. MYTH