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  1. Games Classification Bjorn Bednarek QUT Law School ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Innovation

  2. 1996 The Commonwealth Classification (Publications, Films and Computer Games) Act 1995 comes into effect.

  3. Guidelines The Guidelines for the Classification of Films and Computer Games 2005

  4. 1996 – Duke Nukem

  5. 1996 – Duke Nukem

  6. 1996 – Tomb Raider

  7. 2007 – Tomb Raider

  8. 2007 - Crysis

  9. 2006 Video Game Sales - $925 million1 Movie Box Office – $867 million2 1GFK Australia 2006 2Motion Picture Distributors Association of Australia 2006 Box Office Summary 10 January 2007

  10. Interactive Australia 2007 • 79 percent of Australian households had devices to play video games. • The average Australian video game player is actually 28 years old and soon to be a woman. “The fact of the matter is that today computer games are for adults, and women represent the fastest growing single demographic for gameplay. In five or six years, we'll see that the average gamer is female and nearing the average age of the average Australian.” - Dr Brand Brand 2007, Interactive Australia 2007, Bond University

  11. Games Classification • Inconsistent • With ratings for other games • With ratings for films with similar content • An R18+ rating would solve many problems • Online games are not rated

  12. A Journey Through Games

  13. A Journey Through Games

  14. 1996 – Duke Nukem

  15. 1996 – Duke Nukem

  16. Level of Detail “When the player defeats a fantasy enemy combatant, it falls to the ground with a groan followed by a small pixelated red splash that is a unrealistic representation of blood. As with most 1st person perspective shoot-em up's Duke Nukem 3D suffers from increased pixelation as the alien creature draws near. The Board is of the opinion this diminishes the impact of the game considerably.” OFLC Board report for Duke Nuke 3D

  17. FEAR High Resolution

  18. FEAR Low Resolution

  19. FEAR Low Resolution

  20. FEAR High Resolution

  21. Context

  22. Heightened Impact?

  23. Convergence

  24. Convergence

  25. Convergence

  26. Drug Use with incentives

  27. Drug Use with incentives

  28. Drug Use with incentives

  29. Drug Use with incentives

  30. Drug Use with incentives

  31. Drug Use with incentives

  32. Drug Use with incentives

  33. Inciting Crime

  34. Inciting Crime

  35. Inciting Crime

  36. Inciting Crime

  37. Inciting Crime

  38. Sexualised Violence

  39. Freeform Sandbox Gaming

  40. Videos

  41. How to play “It was a submission of the original applicant that game players did not play games in this way and that they concentrate on achieving the challenges of each level rather than dwelling on the details of “kills”. However,the Review Board is concerned with what a game enables players to achieve, and cannot make a determination based on what a game player may do or how game players may choose to play.” – OFLC Review Board September 2004

  42. Intended by developer?

  43. Intended by developer?

  44. Hot Coffee? http://www.flickr.com/photos/qole/54805467/ - Qole Pejorian

  45. User Modifications

  46. Unrated

  47. Massively Multiplayer

  48. Game Experience May Change During Online Play

  49. Game Experience May Change During Online Play

  50. Life is rated…