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G-10: Interest Groups. Chapter 10- Interest Groups. (1). Define what an Interest Group is, and contrast its functions with political parties . (2). Examine the role, characteristics, growth, and diverse types of Interest Groups.

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chapter 10 interest groups
Chapter 10- Interest Groups
  • (1). Define what an Interest Group is, and contrast its functions with political parties.
  • (2). Examine the role, characteristics, growth, and diverse types of Interest Groups.
  • (3). Explain how Interest Groups are formed and maintained, and discuss the obstacles.
  • (4). Examine the strategiesof Interest Groups and Political Action Committees (PACs).
  • (5). Discuss the role and function of lobbyists & examine the various types of lobbying.
  • (6). Examine the role of Interest Groups in litigation, and define amicus curiae.
  • (7). Analyze influence of Interest Groups, and contrast external & internal factors.
  • (8). Assess the overall positive & negative impact of Int. Groups on the political process.
  • (9). Prepare for Midterm Exam (Chapters 1-10).
defining interest groups
Defining Interest Groups

Interest

Groups

An organized group of people who share certain goals and try to influence ?___________.

How is it different from a Political Party?*

interest groups versus political party
Interest Groups versus Political Party
  • Purpose & priorities of Political Party?

?_____ Elections & win _____________

Purpose & priorities of Interest Group?

Influence ?_____________

on an issue of particular

Interest to the group

slide5

Five Main

Functions* of

Interest Groups?

?__________

?___________

?__________

?___________

?__________

role functions of interest groups
Role & Functions of Interest Groups
  • Five main functions of Interest Groups:
    • 1. ?__________________ – stand for interest of members
    • 2. ?__________________– enable people to participate
      • Government and Politics
    • 3. ?______________ – members, public, & government officials
      • About issues of interest & why IG goals should be supported
    • 4. ?_________________-push new issues onto public agenda
      • Examples: Consumer protection & Veterans issues
    • 5. ?___________________-watch how laws are administered
      • Assess Federal or State Government regulation
the growth of interest groups
The Growth of Interest Groups
  • History & evolution of “factions”
    • De Tocqueville’s observations “forming associations”
    • Anti-slavery association of 1833
    • The Grange of 1860s (anti-Railroad monopolies)
    • National Woman Suffrage Association of 1869
  • Significant Interest Group(IG) growth since 1942:
    • From 600 IGs in 1942 to => 7000+ in 1995

Why the growth of Interest Groups?

increased demands on government
Increased Demands on Government
  • More demands of public placed on Government:
    • Civil Rights & Anti-Vietnam War Legacies
    • Improvements & advances in technology
    • Rise of new issues almost every day

What are the different types of Interest Groups?

diversity of organized interests
Diversity of Organized Interests
  • Three general categories of Interest Groups:
    • 1. ?___________________ Interest Groups
    • 2. ?___________________ Interest Groups
    • 3. ?___________________ Interest Groups
  • Examine each in greater detail=>
slide10

Economic Interest Groups

Four types:

Business Groups

Organized Labor

Agricultural Groups

Professional Associations

1 economic interest groups
1. Economic Interest Groups
  • 1.Business- (Chamber of Commerce, NAM)
    • Trade Associations (Alliance of Automobile Man.)
  • 2.Organized Labor– (AFL-CIO, Amer. Fed. Of Teachers)
  • 3.Agricultural Groups-
    • (American Farm Bureau-large farms)
    • (National Farmer’s Union – smaller farms)
    • Specific commodities – (corn, hog, etc.)
  • 4.Professional Associations-
    • (AMA, ABA, American Optometrists Association)
    • Also for advancement of women & minorities:
      • American Association for University Women
      • National Association for Black Accountants
slide12

2. Citizen Groups

Interest groups, also known as public interest groups, dedicated to promoting a ?___________of public policy rather than the economic interests of their members.

  • Citizen Groups- promote the Group’s vision of public good:
    • American Civil Liberties Union & NRA
    • Single issue groups (NAACP, Greenpeace, NOW)
slide13

3. Government Interest Groups

Interest Groups representing:

State

Governments

Foreign

Governments

Local

Governments

coalitions and divisions
Coalitions and Divisions
  • Groups of similar interests often join in coalitions
    • The Military Coalition => military & VA benefits
    • Environmental & Nature Conservation groups
  • Groups might also divide or realign on various issues that they agree or disagree on:
    • Politics & strange bedfellows:
      • NAFTA issue: role of Cross-cutting cleavages
        • Divided & realigned Environmental Interest Groups
        • Allied with business who either supported or opposed it
interest group formation maintenance
Interest Group Formation & Maintenance
  • Reasons why interest groups form?
  • ?_______________________ Theory=>
    • Usually in response to Government policy
    • Threat to the status quo – The Cat Mother response
  • IGs form mostly in response to some government policy:
    • Policies affecting or potentially affecting members’ interests
    • Most are directly related to politics => influence gov. policy
    • Also some IGs formed for reasons unrelated to politics
  • Whose interest is usually represented?*
    • Rich & powerful - why?

?____________-$$$ status=> political activism

obstacles of interest group formation
Obstacles of Interest Group Formation

A dilemma created when people can obtain the benefits of interest group activity without paying ?__________ associated with it.

(In this situation, the interest group may not form because everyone has an incentive to let someone else pay the ?______________ of group formation.)

The Collective Goods Dilemma?

People who benefit withoutpaying are called?*

slide17

?_________ __________

People or groups who benefit from the efforts of others without bearing any of the costs.

So how are such obstacles to IG formation overcome?

overcoming obstacles to interest group formation
Overcoming Obstacles to Interest Group Formation
  • Political entrepreneurs
    • Cat Mother (local) vs. Ralph Nader (National)
  • Government or wealthy sponsor funds IG
    • Or – IGs attract & motivate prospective members
  • How are new members potentially attracted?
    • New members are offered what?
    • ? ____________ benefits (vs. Collective benefits)
    • What are the three types of Selective benefits?*
3 selective benefits of interest groups
3SelectiveBenefits of Interest Groups

?________*

(stuff)

?________*

(identity)

?________*

(purpose)

slide20

Material

The actual goods and services that come from belonging to an interest group.

capsdecals, magazines,cards, discounts, etc.

Examples?

slide21

Solidarity

The emotional and psychological enjoyment that comes from belonging to an interest group whose members share common interests and goals.

slide22

Expressive

The feelings of satisfaction people derive from working for an interest group cause they believe is just and right. Also known as purposive benefits.

slide23

Material

Solidarity

Expressive

?_________ Benefits:

Any benefit given to a member of a group, but denied to nonmembers

Comprise?

interest group ig maintenance
Interest Group (IG) Maintenance
  • IG Maintenance can be difficult
    • How can this difficulty be overcome?
  • Retain members by upgrading selective benefits
    • Add or modify benefits (bigger & better & more)
  • Increase or decrease reliance on patrons
  • Redefine group’s mission=>
    • Example: March of Dimes
    • From Polio of 1950s to heart disease, cancer, & birth defects today
interest group bias
Interest Group Bias
  • Affluent & better educated over
    • Poor and less educated- Why?
    • The higher the socioeconomic status
      • Themore likely to ?_____________________________
  • Some exceptions – Cesar Chavez led protests against:
    • Wealthier California grape growers during ’70s
    • Chavez was soon joined by young idealistic activists
  • Still raises questions about=>
    • Democracy & political influence in America
    • Of the few elite over many non politically involved
      • (Who are usually less affluent than the influential elite)
interest group strategies
Interest Group Strategies
  • Four major IGStrategies:
    • 1. P________A_______ C___________(PACs)
    • 2. ?_______________ the Government
    • 3. ?__________________ Public Opinion
    • 4. ?_____________________

Let’s examine each strategy in greater detail=>

ig strategy 1 p olitical a ction c ommittees pac s
IG Strategy #1:Political Action Committees (PACs)
  • Organizations that solicit contributions from members of interest groups & channel those contributions to election campaigns
    • (Usually for those candidates supporting policies favorable to members of the Interest Group- though not always)
  • Various categories of PACs grew at different rates
    • Corporate (most growth)
    • Non-connected
    • Trade, Membership, & Health
    • Labor (in decline)
    • Other PACs (Table 10-1 examples)
growth in p olitical a ction c ommittees pac s
Growth in Political Action Committees (PACs)
  • PAC spending has also changed wrt the Political climate
    • Examine changes in following charts and tables*
changes in pac contributions to congress recent comparison
Changes in PAC Contributions to Congress- Recent Comparison

Will change yet again based on 2006 midterms

ig strategy 2 lobbying the government
IG Strategy #2:Lobbying the Government

Lobbying?:

Trying to ?___________ governmental decisions, especially the voting decisions legislators make on proposed legislation.

lobbying the government 2
Lobbying the Government (#2)
  • lobbying & lobbyists, & direct lobbying
    • Targeted attempts to influence policy
    • Through personal contact of government officials
      • Plead clients case directly to official
  • Credible information
    • The key to effectively lobbying
    • Usually lobby officials of similar views
    • Support draft legislation & research
  • Lobbyists know how government process works
    • Many are former Executive appointees or Congressmen
    • Problem: potential conflict of interest

What are the different ways to lobby?

slide33

Types of Lobbying

?_________

Lobbying

?_______

Lobbying*

?__________

Campaigns

?__________

Advertising

slide34

?_________

Lobbying

Trying to influence public policy through direct contact with government officials.

ig strategy 3 mobilize public opinion
IG Strategy #3: Mobilize Public Opinion

Various methods used to mobilize Public Opinion:

  • Education Campaigns* =>
    • Key tool for education of Public: advocacy advertising
    • Educate public by publishing research studies
      • Normally supporting Interest Group’s policy positions
  • Grass-Roots Lobbying* – very effective with Congress
    • Petition drives (Which Amendment Right?)
    • Letters, phone calls, or e-mail to Congress orAdministration
    • Effective way to get elected officials attention
    • Also effective: Marches & demonstrations
    • Finally: Get out the vote drives
slide36

?_________

Campaigns

Interest groups try to mobilize the public through education hoping that the public will demand government action.

slide37

?__________

Advertising

Newspaper, television, and radio advertisements that promote an interest group's political views.

slide38

?______-______

Lobbying

Trying to influence public policy indirectly by mobilizing an interest group's membership and the broader public to contact elected officials.

slide39

Other Types of Public Mobilization

Astroturf

Lobbying*

Civil

Disobedience*

&

slide40

Astroturf

Lobbying

Efforts, usually led by interest groups (or Corporations)with deepfinancial pockets, to create synthetic grass-roots movementsby aggressively encouraging voters to__________________________ ___________________________________________.

(Example: Drug, Tobacco & Insurance Corporations)

slide41

Civil

Disobedience

Civil disobedience is the practice ofbreaking lawsin order topressure legislatorsto change perceived ?___________ laws.

ig strategy 4 litigating
IG Strategy #4: Litigating
  • When you lose with the Congress => then what?
    • You can always ?_______________
    • Last action in a continuing cycle –
  • Examples:
    • 1950s De Jure Segregation-
      • NAACP sued State & Local Governments
    • Clean Air Act & Endangered Species Act
    • Campaign Reform
  • Amicus Curiae brief?
    • Literally: “Friend of the ?_________” supporting brief
interest group influence
Interest Group Influence
  • Two factors determining degree of IG influence?
  • Ex?_____________ & In?___________ Factors
  • ?______ Factors – those beyond group’s control
    • Party in power (President and/or Congress)
      • Business & tax cuts more likely when who’s in power?
      • Union interests more likely to be + considered by who?
    • Opposition Interest Groups => generated in response
      • Opposing IGs tend to cancel each other out
      • Better chance with no opposition (Veterans’ Groups)
        • (Budget proposal to cut Veterans’ Health Care- chance?)
slide44

Internal Factors of

Interest Group Influence?

?__________

Depends on:

?_________

?_________

?_________

Resources

internal factors the details
Internal Factors => The Details:
  • 1.?____________- (size and commitment) – especially who votes!
    • (Recall demographic factors & socio-economic status)
  • 2.?_______________- must understand how Washington works
    • Be able to effectively lead and manage the group’s interests
    • Able to maintain focused & cohesive membership
  • 3.?_______________Resources-in general more $ better than less
    • Contribute to political campaigns => buys access to lawmakers
    • Hire lobbyist who give parties that Congressmen attend
    • Conduct media campaigns: Astroturf Lobbying
      • (“Coalition to End Abusive Securities Suits”)
    • Buy state of the art equipment – direct mail operations
    • What do less funded groups do to compensate for less $$$?
      • How does Green Peaceget free media & capture public’s attention?
  • 4.Objectives => the narrower & less known the better – why?
    • Recall the impact of Disturbance Theory
the balance sheet on interest groups
The Balance Sheet on Interest Groups
  • Americans have love/hate relationship with IGs
    • Another case of Theory versus Reality- why?
  • In Theory: general disdain for factions or “Special Interest”
  • In Reality: Support (at various levels) for specific interests
the pros cons of interest groups
The Pros & Cons of Interest Groups
  • Disagreement over virtues & evils of the many different Interest Groups
    • Great diversity & interests interact and often conflict
      • As illustrated by previous slide (Figure 10-4)*
    • Often these conflicts generate opposition to each other
      • Due primarily to “disturbance theory”
  • One common thread appears throughout:
    • Wealthy & more powerful better represented – Why?
    • Rich can afford the means to gain ?______ to Politicians
    • The primary means of which is by hiring whom to represent and protect their “special interest”?
lobbyists lobbying expenditures
Lobbyists & Lobbying Expenditures
  • The wealthy with high socioeconomic statusjoinInterest Groupsthat can afford to hire Lobbyists to ensure the members’ interest is protected
  • Money spent on Lobbying has grown significantly of late
  • Any Problem?*
potential corruption abuse of power
Potential Corruption & Abuse of Power
  • Significant potential for corruption and abuse of Power is now evident:
    • Recent conviction of Lobbyist Jack Abramoff & Rep. Randy Cunningham (R-CA)
    • Indictment of Tom Delay (R-TX) & convictions of other Congressional and White House officials provide latest examples
  • Negative Impact on Public’s trust & confidence in their Federal & State Government:
    • Public becoming more cynical about Congress & its Government
the contributions of interest groups
The Contributions of Interest Groups:
  • On balance- Interest Groups do make + contributions:
    • Represent views of IG members to Government
    • Enable people to participate in political process
    • Educates public about potential issues affecting them
    • Push new issues onto the political agenda
    • Monitor Government action & push for change
      • Examples: Women’s suffrage & civil rights laws
    • Uphold right of Americans to petition Government
      • (First Amendment right upheld)
  • Despite their vulnerability to abuse by special interests
    • IGs ingrained as integral part of American political process
next week s assignment
Next Week’s Assignment
  • MTX study guide (handout)=> MTX preparation
  • Tuesday: Quiz II
    • Chapters 6-10 Key Terms
  • Thursday: MTX(Chapters 1-10)
    • 100/W SCANTRON with #2 pencil and pen (essay)
    • 1 essay question (drawn from MTX preparation Handout)
    • 100 Key Terms/Multiple Choice
    • Any Questions?
interest group key terms
Interest Group KEY TERMS
  • Advocacy advertising: Newspaper, television, and radio advertisements that promote an interest group’s political views.
  • Amicus curiae brief: Literally, friend of the court. A brief filed with the court by a person or group who is not directly involved in the legal action but who has views on the matter.
  • Astroturf lobbying: Efforts, usually led by interest groups with deep financial pockets, to create synthetic grass-roots movements by aggressively encouraging voters to contact their elected officials about specific issues.
  • Citizen groups: Interest groups, also known as public interest groups, dedicated to promoting a vision of good public policy rather than the economic interests of their members.
  • Collective goods dilemma: A dilemma created when people can obtain the benefits of interest group activity without paying any of the costs associated with it. In this situation, the interest group may not form because everyone has an incentive to let someone else pay the costs of group formation.
  • Direct lobbying: Trying to influence public policy through direct contact with government officials.
  • Expressive benefits: The feelings of satisfaction people derive from working for an interest group cause that they believe is just and right. Also known as purposive benefits.
  • Free riders: People or groups who benefit from the efforts of others without bearing any of the costs.
interest group key terms 2
Interest Group KEY TERMS (2)
  • Grass-roots lobbying: Trying to influence public policy indirectly by mobilizing an interest group’s membership and the broader public to contact elected officials.
  • Interest group: An organized group of people who share some goals and try to influence public policy.
  • Lobbying: Trying to influence governmental decisions, especially the voting decisions legislators make on proposed legislation.
  • Lobbyists: People who make their living trying to influence public policy.
  • Material benefits: The actual goods and services that come from belonging to an interest group.
  • Political action committees (PACs): Organizations that solicit contributions from members of interest groups and channel those contributions to election campaigns.
  • Selective benefits: Any benefit given to a member of a group but denied to nonmembers.
  • Solidarity benefits: The emotional and psychological enjoyment that comes from belonging to an interest group whose members share common interests and goals.
calls for reform
Calls for Reform
  • Complaints re. rich & powerful interest favored over rest
    • Prompt calls for reforms to change rules (& outcomes)
  • Limited changes made by Congress over the last 30+ years:
    • 1970s: Public financing of Presidential Campaigns
    • Also limited gifts to Congress mbrs ($50 for Senators)
    • Greater disclosure policies – must identify lobbyists
      • See Text - (Box 10-2): Lobbyists’ influence on Congress
  • Campaign Finance Reforms
    • Early reform limited PAC $$$ & increased individual contribution
    • 2002: McCain-Feingold (BCRA) bans IGsoft $$ to Parties
      • Also bars IGs from pro/con federal candidate ads close to election
unintended consequences loopholes
Unintended Consequences & Loopholes
  • Balancing Reform with Constitutional Rights
    • 1st Amendment Rights –
      • Reforms often challenged by opponents- who sue
      • Citizens have Constitutional right to petition government
  • Unintended consequences& Loopholes
    • For example: 1970s reforms resulted in Growth of PACs
      • Court rulings on challenges to reform=> growth of Soft Money
    • McCain-Feingold main provisions upheld by Court
      • Growth of 527 Groups=> “stealth or Soft PAC” loophole found
        • Able to get around BCRA reforms through unregulated issue ads
        • 2004 Election: Swift Boat Vets (anti-Kerry) & MoveOn.org (anti-Bush)
    • Recent corruption scandals likely to force more reforms?
creating political action committees pac s
Creating Political Action Committees (PACs)
  • Since election reforms of early ‘70s =>
    • PACs grew significantly at different rates (Fig. 10-1)
  • Various categories of PACs grew at different rates
    • Corporate (most growth)
    • Non-connected
    • Trade, Membership, & Health
    • Labor (in decline)
    • Other PACs (Table 10-1 examples)
  • PAC spending has also changed wrt the Political climate
    • Examine these changes is following charts and tables*
changes in pac contributions to congress
Changes in PAC Contributions to Congress

When the Republican Party gained control of Congress, that donation pattern reversed. During the 1997-1998 election cycle, Republican candidates received a majority of PAC contributions.

1997-1998

changes in pac contributions to congress59
Changes in PAC Contributions to Congress

PACs gave nearly two-thirdsof their congressional campaign contributions to Democratic candidates when the Democrats were the majority party on Capitol Hill.

1993-1994