Sub-Groups of American History. Leaders of our past for key groups throughout American History. Puritans valued family, literacy, parental direction. Chesapeake colonies had shorter life span due to disease and had fewer children with fewer families.
Leaders of our past for key groups
throughout American History
Men were in the power positions, and situations like Anne Hutchinson or the Salem Witch Trials as moments when women attempted to influence government.
“A Powhatan tribal member, she “saved” John Smith’s life. She later marries and Englishman and goes to England and received royally. She becomes ill and dies there.”Pocahontas (1595-1617)
In Plymouth colony he was made Gov. William Bradford's Indian emissary. He was credited with participating the 1st ThanksgivingSquanto (1585-1623)
“She held unorthodox views that challenged the authority of the clefty and views the very integrity of the Puritan experience in Massachusetts Bay Colony.”Anne Hutchinson (1591-1643)
Also known as “Metacom”, this Wampanoag chief planned an attack for 13 years by planning alliances with other tribes against the Puritans. The Puritans got the Iroquois to join them and King Philip was defeated. A higher % of colonists were killed in this war than the American Revolution War later.King Philip (1675)
Founded the 1st Catholic settlement in California in the mid-18th century.
Kidnapped as a boy from Africa, Equiano survived the Middle Passage to live a life of a slave. Later he bought his freedom and became an abolitionist in England.
Shawnee chief, along with his brother “The Prophet”, pushed for Indian alliances among tribes and the English. In the Battle of Tippencanoe, William Henry Harrison defeats “The Prophet” and the hope of the Indians.
As a member of the Liberty Boys, he led colonists against the Redcoats in Boston; he becomes one of 5 who were killed in the “Boston Massacre.”
“This Attucks…appears to have undertaken to be the hero of the night and to lead this army with banners…up to King Street with their clubs… This man with his party cried, ‘Do not be afraid of them!’ He had hardiness enough to fall in upon them!” –John Adams’ account of the Boston Massacre.Crispus Attucks
After the American Revolution, the population was doubling every 25 years. There was also a migration west.
In 1808, trade for slaves through the Middle Passage was outlawed, if not always obeyed. Slave marriages were not recognized and slave families could be separated when slaves were sold “down the river” towards New Orleans.
“1st great woman poet, whose poetry revolved around her faith and religious themes. When her first poetry book was published, many did not believe a former slave had written it. John Hancock vouched for her authorship.”Phyllis Wheatley (1753-1784)
15 year old wife of a French fur trader, this Mandan Indian maiden (with her baby son) went along with Lewis & Clark to serve as an interpreter.Sacajawea (1804)
“If particular care and attention is not paid to the ladies, we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice, or representation.”Abigail Adams (1744-1818)
Dolly saved many important documents and a portrait of President Washington when the British burned the Capitol during the War of 1812.Dolly Madison
There was a movement to allow all white males to vote (versus just the land-owning gentry) under Jackson: “Age of the Common Man.”
Europeans such as Alex Touqueville described Americans as being restless, compulsive joiners of groups, committed to progress, hard-working, hard-playing, and driven to acquire wealth.
Protestant Revivalism became a powerful force, including Charles Finney’s “Social Gospel”.
Cherokee man, also known as “George Guess” created the 1st written language for a Native American tribe.
Cherokee chief who won Worcester v. Georgia, only to watch President Andrew Jackson refuse to support the decision. Chief Ross later was forced to lead his tribe on the “Trail of Tears” to Oklahoma.John Ross (1830’s)
Cult of Domesticity: The prevailing view in the early 1800’s that a woman’s roles were to be housework, child care, and teaching.
Clara served as a nurse during the Civil War and later started the Red Cross.
Attended the National Anti-Slavery Society and befriended Lucretia Mott.
With Elizabeth Stanton, she planned the Seneca Falls Women’s Right Convention. She gave the opening speech & closing speech.
These sisters were daughters of a slave owner in South Carolina. These ladies began to speak for the abolition of slaves.
Part of the Transcendentalism Movement in the mid-1800’s, Alcott joined Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau in the belief of “living a simple life and celebrating the truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination.”Emily Dickinson
Isabella Baumfree was born a slave, but became on July 4, 1827, when New York abolished slavery. She then traveled the country preaching and arguing for abolition of slaves.
Slave preacher who was moved by the story of Moses leading the Israelites out of slavery. He leads a revolt that leads to many deaths, including his own.Nat Turner (1800-1831)
Known as “Black Moses”, she led 300+ people to freedom on the Underground RR after the Fugitive Slave Act.
Slave who got his friends to “mail” him to freedom from Virginia to the Abolitionist Society in Philadelphia.
Sherman’s “total warfare” devastated life in the South: 10% of the men had died, property had been destroyed, value in slaves was lost, land was confiscated, carpetbaggers & scalawags attempted to dominate, and the Ku Klux Klan begins to limit the rights of the newly freedmen.
Henry Grady’s idea of the “New South” led to an expanse of business and industry, rather than just agriculture in the South.
Temperance Movement (Carrie Nation) and Labor Unions (Samuel Gompers) begin to grow. Also missionaries for “White Man’s Burden” becomes a goal for North America.
The most famous Hispanic of the Civil War and the 1st to achieve the rank of admiral.
Leader of the Nez Perce Indians, who led 750 people 1400 miles in a flight to Canada from the U.S. Army.
Chief of the Apaches, he was the last leader to surrender in the Red River War; it was one of the bloodiest Indian conflicts.Geronimo (1829- 1909)
Founder of the Niagara Movement (later the NAACP), Dubois disagreed with Booker T. Washington on how to move against the “separate but equal” mandate of the Supreme Court in the 1890’s.
Born into slavery, she moved to Memphis after emancipation. She worked as a teacher and newspaper editor.
Great educator and scientist, Carver taught at Tuskegee Institute and help diversify farming techniques such as:
As a nurse, she opened the 1st clinic for women and the distribution of birth control information.
Populists wanted a silver standard, a graduated income tax, rural postal system, public ownership of RR, telephone, & telegraph, 8 hour workday, 1 single 6-year term for the President, and direct election of U.S. Senators.
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vazetti were immigrants who were admitted anarchists, who were tried for murder and robbery. Their trials were seen as being unfair after their convictions.
Probably the greatest vocalist of the 1920’s during the Harlem Renaissance, she became the highest paid African-American performer in 1927.
Called for a separate society for African-Americans. He later encouraged people to move back to Africa. His legacy was one of an awakened black pride, economic independence, and reverence for Africa.Marcus Garvey (1887-1940)
A Los Angles-based preacher who used flowing Satin robes and a theatrical delivery to preach her conservative religious views. She later was one of the 1st ministers to use the radio for her sermons against evolution.Aimee Semple McPherson(1920’s)
The quintessential modern, young woman of the 1920’s, this flapper lived a bohemian life in Greenwich Village, NY.
Great painter of the 1920’s, she is best known for her paintings of flowers and the grandeur of New York City.
A leader of the Harlem Renaissance, Hughes imbued his poetry with the rhythms of the jazz and blues music of the age.
One of the greatest composers of the 20th century, he also led the band at Harlem’s Cotton Club for many years.
1st woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean & the 1st to receive a pilot’s license.
African-Americans suffered more than any other group during the Great Depression. 40% were still sharecroppers who were hurt by the initial AAA plans of the New Deal.
FDR’s “Fireside Chats” were weekly radio programs that encouraged the Americans that “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”
Cesar Chavez starts the United Farm Workers’ Organizing Committee to unionize Mexican-American workders.
Niece of Teddy Roosevelt, Eleanor married Franklin and thrived in the role of “First Lady”. She spoke out on issues such as child welfare, housing reform, Tuskegee Airmen, and equal rights for women & minorities.
A documentary photographer during the Great Depression, Lange’s images showed the sufferings of the rural poor in our nation.
After witnessing the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in 1911, she pledged to fight for labor reforms, especially for women.
She later became the 1st woman to serve in the Cabinet; she was the Sec. of Labor for FDR.Frances Perkins (1882-1965)
Born in Savannah, O’Connor’s stories of the South dealt with strange, unusual characters and spiritual thoughts about deep issues.
In 1955, Rosa was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama for not giving up her seat to a white passenger. Her case led to a bus boycott led by Dr. King, Jr.
Led Black protest movement, allowing for violent responses to prejudice. Later, he’s killed by his former group.
One of the few people to win an Oscar, a Tony, an Emmy, and a Grammy throughout her long career.
As a son of a migrant worker in the 1930’s, Chavez attended 37 elementary schools in his career.
Jimmy Carter’s presidency found its greatest success in human rights and world peace initiatives.
Geraldine Ferraro (1984) & Sarah Palin (2008) become the 1st women ever to run for the Vice-President. Hillary Clinton becomes the 1st serious woman candidate for President (2008).
Founder of Ms. Magazine, she was a leader of the feminist movement of the 1970’s. (The “Ms.” title was used to replace “Miss” and “Mrs.”.
A leading conservative thinker who led the resistance against the Equal Rights Amendment. She moved the debate from political & economic issues to cultural ones that attacked the social order.
In November, 1969, an 18 month occupation of the island of Alcatraz was held by Native Americans; they demanded it to be given back and used to build an Indian university and cultural center. They were removed in June, 1971.
Leader of the American Indian Movement (AIM), he organized the “Trail of Broken Treaties” and delivered to Washington D.C. building for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).
President Reagan chose O’Connor to be the 1st lady to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court.
1st Hispanic to hold the postion of U.S. ambassador to the U.N. He’s also been a Congressman & 1st Hispanic to be governor of New Mexico. He also ran for President in 2008.
From serving as First Lady to U.S. Senator to Presidential candidate, to serving as Sec. of State for President Obama, she has played a vital role in American politics since the 1990’s.Hillary Rodham Clinton