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Sub-Groups of American History. Leaders of our past for key groups throughout American History. Puritans valued family, literacy, parental direction. Chesapeake colonies had shorter life span due to disease and had fewer children with fewer families.

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sub groups of american history

Sub-Groups of American History

Leaders of our past for key groups

throughout American History

life in the colonies

Puritans valued family, literacy, parental direction.

  • Chesapeake colonies had shorter life span due to disease and had fewer children with fewer families.
  • Indentured servants were used more than slaves; 40% of indentured servants die before they achieve their freedom. As economics changed in Europe, fewer people needed indentured servants, so slavery became the “new option.”
Life in the Colonies
life in the colonies1

Men were in the power positions, and situations like Anne Hutchinson or the Salem Witch Trials as moments when women attempted to influence government.

  • In the Puritan society, the women had no decision-making ability; they could be be member of the church (like the men) but the women still could not vote.
  • Thanksgiving with Squanto and the Pilgrims; Pocahontas and John Smith; King Philip’s War are examples of culture clash.
Life in the Colonies
pocahontas 1595 1617

“A Powhatan tribal member, she “saved” John Smith’s life. She later marries and Englishman and goes to England and received royally. She becomes ill and dies there.”

Pocahontas (1595-1617)
squanto 1585 1623

In Plymouth colony he was made Gov. William Bradford's Indian emissary. He was credited with participating the 1st Thanksgiving

Squanto (1585-1623)
anne hutchinson 1591 1643

“She held unorthodox views that challenged the authority of the clefty and views the very integrity of the Puritan experience in Massachusetts Bay Colony.”

Anne Hutchinson (1591-1643)
king philip 1675

Also known as “Metacom”, this Wampanoag chief planned an attack for 13 years by planning alliances with other tribes against the Puritans. The Puritans got the Iroquois to join them and King Philip was defeated. A higher % of colonists were killed in this war than the American Revolution War later.

King Philip (1675)
father junipero serra 1713 1784

Founded the 1st Catholic settlement in California in the mid-18th century.

  • Franciscan priest who traveled from Spain to Mexico to set up missions, some of which became San Diego & San Francisco.
Father Junipero Serra (1713-1784)
olaudah equiano 1745 1797

Kidnapped as a boy from Africa, Equiano survived the Middle Passage to live a life of a slave. Later he bought his freedom and became an abolitionist in England.

  • He wrote “The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano”
  • The 18th century was the busiest time of the slave trade, as over 6 million people were brought over. By the end of the 1700’s, slaves made up 80% of the Caribbean colonies.
OlaudahEquiano (1745-1797
tecumseh early 1800 s

Shawnee chief, along with his brother “The Prophet”, pushed for Indian alliances among tribes and the English. In the Battle of Tippencanoe, William Henry Harrison defeats “The Prophet” and the hope of the Indians.

  • “The Great Spirit gave this great land to his red children.”
Tecumseh (early 1800’s)
crispus attucks

As a member of the Liberty Boys, he led colonists against the Redcoats in Boston; he becomes one of 5 who were killed in the “Boston Massacre.”

“This Attucks…appears to have undertaken to be the hero of the night and to lead this army with banners…up to King Street with their clubs… This man with his party cried, ‘Do not be afraid of them!’ He had hardiness enough to fall in upon them!” –John Adams’ account of the Boston Massacre.

Crispus Attucks
life in the new nation

After the American Revolution, the population was doubling every 25 years. There was also a migration west.

  • After indentured servant “volunteers” decreased and the cotton gin was invented, slavery became the major source of manpower in the South.
  • The growth of markets for farm products in the cities, coupled with the liberal land policies of the federal government let to steady growth in staple agricultural crops.
  • Before 1815, there were not many public schools; most education was private.
  • Women were considered unfit for academics.
Life in the New Nation
life in the new nation1

In 1808, trade for slaves through the Middle Passage was outlawed, if not always obeyed. Slave marriages were not recognized and slave families could be separated when slaves were sold “down the river” towards New Orleans.

  • The Native Americans had split on their loyalities during the French-Indian War. During the American Revolution, most had sided with the French.
  • Thomas Jefferson was one of the first to consider the idea of moving the Indians to a “reservation” system.
Life in the New Nation
phyllis wheatley 1753 1784

“1st great woman poet, whose poetry revolved around her faith and religious themes. When her first poetry book was published, many did not believe a former slave had written it. John Hancock vouched for her authorship.”

Phyllis Wheatley (1753-1784)
sacajawea 1804

15 year old wife of a French fur trader, this Mandan Indian maiden (with her baby son) went along with Lewis & Clark to serve as an interpreter.

Sacajawea (1804)
abigail adams 1744 1818

“If particular care and attention is not paid to the ladies, we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice, or representation.”

Abigail Adams (1744-1818)
dolly madison

Dolly saved many important documents and a portrait of President Washington when the British burned the Capitol during the War of 1812.

Dolly Madison
life in the jacksonian antebellum eras

There was a movement to allow all white males to vote (versus just the land-owning gentry) under Jackson: “Age of the Common Man.”

  • Free blacks in the South were usually excluded from the polls, and even in Northern states.
  • Jackson supported the removal of all Indian tribes to west of the Miss. River. The Indian Removal Act (1830) and the refusal to enforce the Worcester v. Ga Supreme Court case sealed their fate.
Life in the Jacksonian & Antebellum Eras
life in the jacksonian and antebellum eras

Europeans such as Alex Touqueville described Americans as being restless, compulsive joiners of groups, committed to progress, hard-working, hard-playing, and driven to acquire wealth.

  • These Americans talked of equality, but the reality of the system led to class society and mob incidents.
  • The Transcendentalists began in Concord, Mass. Led by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Emily Dickinson repudiated the repression of society, the use of civil disobedience, and the lessons learned from nature.
  • Manifest Destiny is completed in President Polk’s adminstration.
Life in the Jacksonian and Antebellum Eras
life in the jacksonian and antebellum eras1

Protestant Revivalism became a powerful force, including Charles Finney’s “Social Gospel”.

  • Women’s temperance movements started in 1826, though many immigrants fought it.
  • Dorthea Dix, Seneca Falls, and the Abolitionist Movement began during this period.
  • Birth rates began to drop, especially in cities. Children were more economic liabilities than assets. Immigration increased in the cities.
  • The 1st Industrial Revolution occurs, and for the 1st time, there were more wage earners than self-employed Americans. “King Cotton took over in the South.” Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey, and Nat Turner planned to lead slave revolts.
Life in the Jacksonian and Antebellum Eras

Cherokee man, also known as “George Guess” created the 1st written language for a Native American tribe.

  • It was a syllabury, based on syllables rather than letters.
john ross 1830 s

Cherokee chief who won Worcester v. Georgia, only to watch President Andrew Jackson refuse to support the decision. Chief Ross later was forced to lead his tribe on the “Trail of Tears” to Oklahoma.

John Ross (1830’s)
cult of domesticity v the lowell mill

Cult of Domesticity: The prevailing view in the early 1800’s that a woman’s roles were to be housework, child care, and teaching.

  • Lowell Mill hired women for less pay than men (though it did pay more than teaching). They’d work 13 hours a day. They later organized the 1st strike by women workers.
Cult of Domesticity v. The Lowell Mill
clara barton

Clara served as a nurse during the Civil War and later started the Red Cross.

  • She went to Andersonville Prison in Georgia to identify graves of fallen Union prisoners.
Clara Barton
dorthea dix

As a prison and asylum reformer, she focused on rehabilitation & treatment for the sick and imprisoned.

  • “Injustice is also done to the convicts: it is certainly very wrong that they should be doomed day after day and night after night to listen to the ravings of manmen and madwomen.”
Dorthea Dix (
elizabeth cady stanton

Attended the National Anti-Slavery Society and befriended Lucretia Mott.

  • They held the women’s rights convention in Seneca Fall, New York in 1848.
  • “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal.”
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
lucretia mott

With Elizabeth Stanton, she planned the Seneca Falls Women’s Right Convention. She gave the opening speech & closing speech.

  • She was a Quaker!
  • She and her husband later became a “stop” on the Underground RR.
Lucretia Mott
sarah angelina grimke

These sisters were daughters of a slave owner in South Carolina. These ladies began to speak for the abolition of slaves.

  • Angelina wrote An Appeal to Christian women of the South that spelled out the evils of slavery.
  • The Massachusetts clergy criticized the ladies for assuming the “place & tone of man as public reformers.”
Sarah & Angelina Grimke
emily dickinson

Part of the Transcendentalism Movement in the mid-1800’s, Alcott joined Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau in the belief of “living a simple life and celebrating the truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination.”

Emily Dickinson
elizabeth blackwell

In 1849, she became the 1st woman to graduate from a medical college.

  • She later opened the Infirmary for Women and Children.
Elizabeth Blackwell
sojourner truth 1797 1883

Isabella Baumfree was born a slave, but became on July 4, 1827, when New York abolished slavery. She then traveled the country preaching and arguing for abolition of slaves.

  • “Ain’t I a woman? I could work as much as eat as much as a man…and bear the lash as well. Ain’t I a woman?”
Sojourner Truth (1797-1883)
nat turner 1800 1831

Slave preacher who was moved by the story of Moses leading the Israelites out of slavery. He leads a revolt that leads to many deaths, including his own.

Nat Turner (1800-1831)
harriet tubman 1820 1913

Known as “Black Moses”, she led 300+ people to freedom on the Underground RR after the Fugitive Slave Act.

  • A $40,000 bounty was put on her for her capture!
  • She later served as a spy for the North during the Civil War.
Harriet Tubman (1820-1913)
harriet beecher stowe 1811 1896

Abolitionist who wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin in 1852.

  • Later, during the Civil War, Stowe met President Lincoln who said: “So this is the little lady who made the big war.”
Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896)
henry box brown 1815

Slave who got his friends to “mail” him to freedom from Virginia to the Abolitionist Society in Philadelphia.

  • He spent 28 hours in a 4 foot box with biscuits and water.
Henry “Box” Brown (1815-???)
frederick douglass 1818 1895

Former slave who spoke & wrote eloquently about abolition of slavery.

  • Published the North Star newspaper.
  • Pushed President Lincoln for emancipation of slaves during Civil War.
Frederick Douglass (1818-1895)
civil war reconstruction new south

Sherman’s “total warfare” devastated life in the South: 10% of the men had died, property had been destroyed, value in slaves was lost, land was confiscated, carpetbaggers & scalawags attempted to dominate, and the Ku Klux Klan begins to limit the rights of the newly freedmen.

  • Boss Tweed’s Tammany Hall dominated local city politics and Confederate leaders were prohibited from holding office or voting.
  • Corruption in Grant’s time, Election of 1876, and Cleveland’s tenure led to increased power by Congress.
Civil War, Reconstruction, New South
civil war reconstruction new south1

Henry Grady’s idea of the “New South” led to an expanse of business and industry, rather than just agriculture in the South.

  • Robber Barons such as Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Cornelius Vanderbilt, J.P. Morgan gain great wealth in their monopolies.
  • Skyscrapers, immigrants, Ellis Island, Statue of Liberty become big parts of America.
  • Social Gospel for better health, education and living conditions (besides spritual salvation) became the focus of those like Jane Addams.
Civil War, Reconstruction,New South
civil war reconstruction new south2

Temperance Movement (Carrie Nation) and Labor Unions (Samuel Gompers) begin to grow. Also missionaries for “White Man’s Burden” becomes a goal for North America.

  • Industrial Revolution with Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, etc. occurs.
  • Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois become leaders in the “Separate but Equal” time.
  • Latin American trade increases under President Hayes; 1st ideas of a canal through Nicaragua is proposed.
  • Native Americans win “Little Big Horn” but lose the war and are forced onto reservations.
  • Mark Twain becomes the writer of the age.
Civil War, Reconstruction,New South
david farragut 1801 1870

The most famous Hispanic of the Civil War and the 1st to achieve the rank of admiral.

  • He captured many Confederate ships and secured New Orleans for the Union during the war.
David Farragut(1801-1870)
chief joseph 1840 1904

Leader of the Nez Perce Indians, who led 750 people 1400 miles in a flight to Canada from the U.S. Army.

  • Treat all men alike. Give them all the same law. Give them all an even chance to live and grow. All men wer made by the same Great Spirit Chief.”
Chief Joseph (1840-1904)
sitting bull 1831 1890

Sioux chief who defeated George Custer at Little Big Horn in June 1876.

  • Sitting Bull later joined Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show that toured the world.
Sitting Bull (1831-1890)
geronimo 1829 1909

Chief of the Apaches, he was the last leader to surrender in the Red River War; it was one of the bloodiest Indian conflicts.

Geronimo (1829- 1909)
booker t washington 1856 1915

President of Tuskegee Institute

  • Saw education as key during the “Separate But Equal” time
  • 1st African-American to be invited to a White House dinner (TR)
  • 5 Finger Speech
Booker T. Washington (1856-1915)
w e b dubois

Founder of the Niagara Movement (later the NAACP), Dubois disagreed with Booker T. Washington on how to move against the “separate but equal” mandate of the Supreme Court in the 1890’s.

  • “Souls of Black Folk” was his greatest writing, and it called for a demand in equality for African-Americans and to educate the “Top 10%” of African-Americans in universities.
W.E.B. Dubois
ida wells 1880 s

Born into slavery, she moved to Memphis after emancipation. She worked as a teacher and newspaper editor.

  • “This is what opened my eyes to what lynching really was. An excuse to get rid of Negroes who were acquiring wealth and property and thus keep the race terrorized.”
Ida Wells (1880’s)
george washington carver 1864 1943

Great educator and scientist, Carver taught at Tuskegee Institute and help diversify farming techniques such as:

    • Crop rotation
    • Peanut usage
    • Soybean usage
    • Sweet potato usage
George Washington Carver(1864-1943)
susan b anthony 1820 1906

Worked for women’s rights for 50 years.

  • Wrote a weekly paper: The Revolution, which stressed the importance of women’s suffrage.
  • She’s on the silver dollar coin.
Susan B. Anthony(1820-1906)
margaret sanger 1920 s

As a nurse, she opened the 1st clinic for women and the distribution of birth control information.

  • She later founded the group that became “Planned Parenthood”.
Margaret Sanger (1920’s)
populists roaring twenties

Populists wanted a silver standard, a graduated income tax, rural postal system, public ownership of RR, telephone, & telegraph, 8 hour workday, 1 single 6-year term for the President, and direct election of U.S. Senators.

  • Jane Addams’ Hull House helped settle new immigrants from Greece, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Russia.
  • Progressives led to Hepburn Act (inter-state commerce) and Pure Food & Drug Act (1906)
Populists- Roaring Twenties
populists roaring twenties1

Baseball and basketball are launched as major leagues.

  • Progressives included honest government, economic regulation, environmental concerns including building and controlling the Panama Canal (which was completed in 1914).
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association, leading to the 19th amendment in 1920.
  • The Prohibition movement led to the 18th amendment, which outlawed alcohol.
Populists – Roaring Twenties
populists roaring twenties2

Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vazetti were immigrants who were admitted anarchists, who were tried for murder and robbery. Their trials were seen as being unfair after their convictions.

  • “Flappers” represented the wild, urban times after WWI. The younger generation’s reaction to the death and destruction of the “War to End All Wars” occurred during this time that 51% of the U.S. population lived in urban areas (the first time that had happened). Margaret Sanger’s birth control discussions were controversial.
  • There was a Great Migration of African-Americans to the cities as the “separate but equal” life in the South as tenant farmers & sharecroppers had left many to move to better lifestyles.
  • The 1920’s saw a continuance of Mexican workers to the U.S. and the start of massive immigration from Puerto Rico to New York.
Populists-Roaring Twenties
louis armstrong

1st great African-American trumpet player and band leader.

  • Armstrong made personal expression a vital part of jazz performance.
  • “When I get to the Pearly Gates, I’ll play a duet with Gabriel. We’ll play ‘Sleepy Time Down South’. He wants to be remembered for his music just like I do.”
Louis Armstrong
bessie smith

Probably the greatest vocalist of the 1920’s during the Harlem Renaissance, she became the highest paid African-American performer in 1927.

  • The Harlem Renaissance was a time of great social and cultural changes that occurred during the Roaring Twenties.
Bessie Smith
marcus garvey 1887 1940

Called for a separate society for African-Americans. He later encouraged people to move back to Africa. His legacy was one of an awakened black pride, economic independence, and reverence for Africa.

Marcus Garvey (1887-1940)
aimee semple mcpherson 1920 s

A Los Angles-based preacher who used flowing Satin robes and a theatrical delivery to preach her conservative religious views. She later was one of the 1st ministers to use the radio for her sermons against evolution.

Aimee Semple McPherson(1920’s)
edna st vincent millay

The quintessential modern, young woman of the 1920’s, this flapper lived a bohemian life in Greenwich Village, NY.

  • “My candle burns at both end; it will not last the night; But ah, my foes, and oh, my friends– it gives a lovely light!”- “First Fig” by Millay.
Edna St. Vincent Millay
georgia o keefe

Great painter of the 1920’s, she is best known for her paintings of flowers and the grandeur of New York City.

  • “I will make even busy New Yorkers take time to see what I see in flowers.”
Georgia O’Keefe
langston hughes

A leader of the Harlem Renaissance, Hughes imbued his poetry with the rhythms of the jazz and blues music of the age.

  • Dreams of freedom and equality were themes in his work.
Langston Hughes
duke ellington 1899 1974

One of the greatest composers of the 20th century, he also led the band at Harlem’s Cotton Club for many years.

  • “Ellington plays the piano, but his real instrument is his band.”
Duke Ellington (1899-1974)
amelia earhart 1897 1937

1st woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean & the 1st to receive a pilot’s license.

  • She attempted to fly around the world at its widest point, but lost radio contact around the Pacific islands.
  • She inspired girls to consider non-traditional careers.
Amelia Earhart(1897-1937)
great depression 1960 s

African-Americans suffered more than any other group during the Great Depression. 40% were still sharecroppers who were hurt by the initial AAA plans of the New Deal.

  • The Indian Reorganization Act restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions, and gave loans to help develop tribal lands under the CCC plan.
  • Few programs of the New Deal were designed to help the Mexican American workers, and many were replaced by white Americans who had lost their other jobs.
  • Housewives learned to “make do” with what they had for their families at home, while their husbands traveled around, looking for work.
Great Depression- 1960’s
great depression 1960 s1

FDR’s “Fireside Chats” were weekly radio programs that encouraged the Americans that “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”

  • Truman begins the de-segregation of society by ordering the military to end its segregated units.
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Little Rock Guardsmen, March on Washington “I Have a Dream”, Civil Rights Act, Voting Registration Act were passed to begin Civil Rights era.
  • Malcolm X & Black Power Movement (Stokely Carmichael) also starts up.
  • Cult of feminine domesticity re-emerged after “Rosie the Riveter” movement of WWII.
Great Depression – 1960’s
great depression 1960 s2

Cesar Chavez starts the United Farm Workers’ Organizing Committee to unionize Mexican-American workders.

  • Native Americans start AIM (American Indian Movement) in 1968. In the 1970’s, they will begin to bring lawsuits.
  • The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan argued that middle-class society stifled women and did not let them use their talents. She attacked the “cult of domesticity” and formed the National Organization of Women (NOW). They pushed (unsuccessfully) for the E.R.A. amendment to be passed by Congress and the states.
Great Depression-1960’s
eleanor roosevelt 1884 1962

Niece of Teddy Roosevelt, Eleanor married Franklin and thrived in the role of “First Lady”. She spoke out on issues such as child welfare, housing reform, Tuskegee Airmen, and equal rights for women & minorities.

  • She later served as the U.S. ambassador to the U.N.
Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962)
dorothea lange 1895 1965

A documentary photographer during the Great Depression, Lange’s images showed the sufferings of the rural poor in our nation.

  • “One should really use the camera as though tomorrow you’d be stricken blind.”
Dorothea Lange (1895-1965)
frances perkins 1882 1965

After witnessing the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in 1911, she pledged to fight for labor reforms, especially for women.

She later became the 1st woman to serve in the Cabinet; she was the Sec. of Labor for FDR.

Frances Perkins (1882-1965)
flannery o connor 1925 1964

Born in Savannah, O’Connor’s stories of the South dealt with strange, unusual characters and spiritual thoughts about deep issues.

  • Most famous work: “It’s Hard to Find a Good Man”
Flannery O’Connor (1925-1964)
jackie robinson

1st African- American to play Major League Baseball.

  • 1st ever Rookie of the Year winner.
  • Born in Cairo, Ga.
  • Spoke to Congress for racial equality
Jackie Robinson
thurgood marshall 1908 1993

Winning lawyer of the Brown v. Bd. Of Education case.

  • 1st African-American to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court.
  •  “In recognizing the humanity of our fellow beings, we pay ourselves the highest tribute.”—Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993)
rosa parks

In 1955, Rosa was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama for not giving up her seat to a white passenger. Her case led to a bus boycott led by Dr. King, Jr.

  • Ms. Parks won the Congressional Gold Medal in 1999- the nation’s highest civil honor. Bill Clinton said, “Her action that December day was, in itself, a simple one; but it required uncommon courage…Rosa Parks’ short bus trip, and all the distance she has traveled in the years since, have brought the American people ever closer to the promised land we know it can truly be.”
Rosa Parks
martin luther king jr

Civil Rights Movement of Non-Violence

  • Led SCLC
  • Won Nobel Peace Prize
  • Got LBJ to sign Civil Rights Bill & Voting Rights Act
Martin Luther King, Jr.
malcolm x

Led Black protest movement, allowing for violent responses to prejudice. Later, he’s killed by his former group.

  • A man who believes in freedom will do anything under the sun to acquire . . . or preserve his freedom."
Malcolm X
rita moreno 1950

One of the few people to win an Oscar, a Tony, an Emmy, and a Grammy throughout her long career.

  • Her most famous role was in the movie version of the musical Westside Story.
  • She has been one of the leading entertainers of the past century.
Rita Moreno (1950-)
cesar chavez 1927 1993

As a son of a migrant worker in the 1930’s, Chavez attended 37 elementary schools in his career.

  • Later, he led boycotts as a union leader to get better pay and conditions for workers. His efforts led to a national farm workers’ union that used non-violent strikes and boycotts for improvements for these migrant workers.
  • “I really hadn’t thought much about what I was going to do, but I had to do something.”
Cesar Chavez (1927-1993)
1970 s present

Jimmy Carter’s presidency found its greatest success in human rights and world peace initiatives.

  • Sandra Day O’Connor was appointed by President Reagan to be the 1st woman to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court.
  • Jesse Jackson (“Rainbow Coalition”) became the 1st serious African-American candidate in 1984.
  • The Americans with Disabilities Ace was passed in 1990 to bar discrimination based on physical or mental disabilities.
  • Women serving in combat units in the military began.
1970’s- Present
1970 s present1

Geraldine Ferraro (1984) & Sarah Palin (2008) become the 1st women ever to run for the Vice-President. Hillary Clinton becomes the 1st serious woman candidate for President (2008).

  • Anti-Immigration laws (Arizona & Georgia) are strengthened to deal with “illegal aliens” and our borders.
  • After 9/11, Homeland Security is created to protect the U.S. from terrorist attacks. This includes greater scrutiny of travelers to our country.
  • Barack Obama (2008) is the first African-American to be elected as President.
1970’s- Present
gloria steinem 1934

Founder of Ms. Magazine, she was a leader of the feminist movement of the 1970’s. (The “Ms.” title was used to replace “Miss” and “Mrs.”.

  • 1n 1971, her group, the Women’s Political Caucus, encouraged women to run for political office.”
  • “I have yet to hear a man ask for advice on how to combine marriage and a career.”
Gloria Steinem (1934-)
phyllis schlafly

A leading conservative thinker who led the resistance against the Equal Rights Amendment. She moved the debate from political & economic issues to cultural ones that attacked the social order.

  • “The U.S. Constitution is not the place for symbols or slogans… it would be a tragic mistake for our nation to succumb to the tirades and demands of a few women who are seeking a constitutional cure to their personal problems.”
Phyllis Schlafly
red power alcatraz

In November, 1969, an 18 month occupation of the island of Alcatraz was held by Native Americans; they demanded it to be given back and used to build an Indian university and cultural center. They were removed in June, 1971.

  • Later, President Nixon did return 48,000 acres to the Taos Indians.
Red Power (Alcatraz)
russell means 1960 1970 s

Leader of the American Indian Movement (AIM), he organized the “Trail of Broken Treaties” and delivered to Washington D.C. building for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).

  • In 1975, Congress passed the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, which gave tribes greater control over their people.
Russell Means (1960-1970’s)
roberto clemente 1934 1972

1st Hispanic elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.

  • Played for the Pirates for 18 years, won 12 Golden Gloves in a row, and an MVP award.
  • He died taking supplies to Panama and was awarded the U.S. Presidential Medal of Freedom.
Roberto Clemente(1934-1972)
henry aaron

Broke Babe Ruth’s Home Run Record

  • Withstood racial prejudice while breaking the record
  • Silver Bat Award is named for him
Henry Aaron
sarah day o connor 1980 s

President Reagan chose O’Connor to be the 1st lady to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court.

  • “The power I exert on the court depends on the power of my arguments, not on my gender.”
Sarah Day O’Connor (1980’s)
andrew young

Martin L. King’s entourage with Jesse Jackson & John Lewis

  • U.S. Representative to the United Nations.
  • Mayor of Atlanta
Andrew Young
bill richardson 1947

1st Hispanic to hold the postion of U.S. ambassador to the U.N. He’s also been a Congressman & 1st Hispanic to be governor of New Mexico. He also ran for President in 2008.

  • He has been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize three times in his life.
Bill Richardson(1947-)
hillary rodham clinton

From serving as First Lady to U.S. Senator to Presidential candidate, to serving as Sec. of State for President Obama, she has played a vital role in American politics since the 1990’s.

Hillary Rodham Clinton
barack obama

1st African-American President

  • 4th president to win Nobel Peace Prize
  • National Health Care Bill is passed
  • Promised “Change”
Barack Obama