American government 10th edition by theodore j lowi benjamin ginsberg and kenneth a shepsle
Download
1 / 23

AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, 10th edition by Theodore J. Lowi, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Kenneth A. Shepsle - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 1388 Views
  • Updated On :

AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, 10th edition by Theodore J. Lowi, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Kenneth A. Shepsle Chapter 12: Interest Groups Interest Group Pluralism

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, 10th edition by Theodore J. Lowi, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Kenneth A. Shepsle' - ostinmannual


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
American government 10th edition by theodore j lowi benjamin ginsberg and kenneth a shepsle l.jpg

AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, 10th editionby Theodore J. Lowi, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Kenneth A. Shepsle

Chapter 12: Interest Groups


Interest group pluralism l.jpg
Interest Group Pluralism

“By a faction I understand a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community.”

—James Madison, Federalist 10

James Madison’s Federalist 10 provides a basis for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of interest group politics in the United States.


Slide3 l.jpg

The Institution Principle

Because “the latent causes of faction … are sown in the nature of man,” Madison argued that institutional arrangement must be erected to control the effects of factional politics.

Madison believed:

Balancing the conflicting interests of different factions was the most reliable way to control the negative effects of factional politics.

Increasing the number and variety of factions actually aided the pursuit of the public good.


Slide4 l.jpg

Following Madison, mid-20th century pluralists argued that interest group politics was a major strength of American government and society.

Pluralism is the theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government. The outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation.


Slide5 l.jpg

Pluralists argued that interest groups

  • represent many diverse interests in society;

  • provide expert information and perspectives that improve policy making.


Slide6 l.jpg

Critics of pluralism argued that interest groups

  • represent “special interests” and do not reflect the broader will of the people or the public good;

  • overrepresent the wealthy in society;

  • provide self-serving and biased information that warp policy making.


Slide7 l.jpg

Even if they disagreed on whether group politics was good or bad, pluralists and their critics were united in their belief that interest groups were plentiful, powerful, and influential in American politics.

What kinds of interest groups exist?

Why do people join interest groups?

How do groups gain influence in politics?


Types of interest groups l.jpg
Types of Interest Groups or bad, pluralists and their critics were united in their belief that interest groups were plentiful, powerful, and influential in American politics.

Interest groups form

  • to increase the chance that their views will be heard;

  • to influence government;

  • to represent interests and encourage political participation.


Slide9 l.jpg

Some interest groups organize because they have a direct economic interest in government policies.

Examples of such economic interest groups include:

  • National Association of Manufacturers

  • American Farm Bureau Federation


Slide10 l.jpg

Organized labor organizations economic interest in government policies. are important interest groups in Washington politics.

Examples include:

  • AFL-CIO

  • The International Brotherhood of Teamsters

  • SEIU


Slide11 l.jpg

Professional associations economic interest in government policies. also try to influence the government:

  • American Medical Association

  • American Bar Association


Slide12 l.jpg

Some groups, like economic interest in government policies.public interest groups and ideological groups,become active not out of direct economic interest but for some broader purpose.

Public-sector groups like the National League of Cities, think tanks, and universities also lobby the government.


Slide13 l.jpg

Although pluralists are correct that there are a wide variety of interest groups, critics of pluralism are also correct that some interests (particularly wealthy interests) are better represented than others in American politics.


Slide15 l.jpg

Interest groups give individuals incentives to join the group through the provision of selective benefits.

Types of Selective Benefits

informational benefits

material benefits

solidary benefits

purposive benefits


Strategies of influence l.jpg

Contemporary interest groups seek influence over policy makers through a mix of “inside” strategies and “outside” strategies.

Inside strategies include:

lobbying

influencing administrative rule-making

litigation

Outside strategies include:

influencing election outcomes

affecting media coverage

Strategies of Influence


Slide17 l.jpg

Interest groups makers through a mix of “inside” strategies and “outside” strategies.hire lawyers to influence the judiciary.

Sometimes groups are litigants in lawsuits.

Often groups submit amicus curiae briefs giving their perspectives on cases to which they are not a party.


Slide18 l.jpg

Interest groups seek to makers through a mix of “inside” strategies and “outside” strategies.influence public opinion by

  • developing media strategies and advertising (known as going public);

  • mobilizing citizens at the grass roots.


Slide19 l.jpg

Finally, interest groups seek to makers through a mix of “inside” strategies and “outside” strategies.influence the outcome of elections.

  • By mobilizing their members, groups can deliver volunteers and votes to campaigns.

  • Through political action committees (PACs), groups contribute money to candidates. The influence of PAC contributions has increased considerably in recent years.


Slide20 l.jpg

Source: Center for Responsive Politics, “Top PACs” ( makers through a mix of “inside” strategies and “outside” strategies.http://www.crp.org/pacs/topacs.asp). Based on incomplete 2007-2008 election cycle including moneys reported to Federal Election Commission as of October 29, 2007.


ad