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China 1945-1949. War, civil war and CCP victory. During the war China was divided into two sections. GMD China in the towns and cities on the coast and CCP China in the rural ‘liberation areas’. Chiang Kaishek – Military dictator – Generalissimo.

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China 1945-1949

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china 1945 1949

China 1945-1949

War, civil war and CCP victory


During the war China was divided into two sections. GMD China in the towns and cities on the coast and CCP China in the rural ‘liberation areas’

gmd china 1945
Chiang Kaishek – Military dictator – Generalissimo.

Used a political police force – Blueshirts – to destroy opposition.

Chiang wanted to modernise and unify China.

Tried to gain support from peasants by sending students into the countryside to help with the harvest, however failed to gain their support because of high taxes and famine.

Also failed to deal with other serious problems facing China like medical care and poverty

The GMD gained most support in towns and cities amongst the‘middle class’ in China.

GMD China - 1945
ccp china 1945
In ‘Liberation areas’ controlled by the CCP many changes were made to land ownership and farming.

Land was taken from big landlords and given to peasants. Rents and taxes were reduced.

The Red Army helped to improve farming methods – introduced new tools.

The CCP tried to make society more modern and equal.Banned many old practices (like foot-binding) and tried to encourage everyone to live equally.

They gained a lot of support from peasants.

The Red Army was respected for its disciplined behaviour and hard work.

CCP China - 1945
ccp versus gmd
CCP versus GMD
  • Both the GMD and the CCP wanted control of China after World War Two.
  • Both sides had armies willing to fight and die for their side.
  • The CCP held power in much of Central and Northern China, but the GMD had more power in the South.
a chance at peace
A chance at Peace?
  • As soon as the war with Japan was over the two sides began to fight for control.
  • To begin with the CCP looked stronger, however the GMD then received help from the USA (because the Americans didn’t want China to become communist). The USA wanted the GMD and the CCP to share power, to avoid civil war.
  • A truce was established but it quickly broke down and civil war began in 1946.
the fighting begins
The GMD had many advantages over the CCP – well-trained soldiers, new equipment, money and control of many cities.

Chiang also had the backing of most foreign countries.

The first offensive of the civil war was launched by the GMD in north China.

Over the next year the GMD won many battles against the CCP and had captured the CCP capital Yanan.

The fighting begins….
fighting continues
Progress was promising for the GMD by mid 1947, however the CCP was beginning to fight back more effectively.

By the end of 1947 the CCP had taken much of central and northern China by using Guerilla tactics.

Thousands of peasants joined the PLA.

Massive inflation caused many people in GMD towns/cities to switch their support to the communists.

The Blueshirts tried and failed to keep order – but the GMD was losing control rapidly.

fighting continues...

The Red army is

renamed the

PLA in 1946.

the communists take control
The Communists take control!
  • The PLA continued to grow throughout 1947/48 and became powerful enough to face the GMD army head-on.
  • The two sides fought a massive battle at Huai River (Battle of Huai Hai) and the GMD suffered massive casualties.
  • The CCP were able to take control of Bejing and other important cities.

The war was over! The Communists had beaten the GMD!Chiang fled to Taiwan early in 1949 and set up a GMD led ‘Republic of China’.The creation of the People’s Republic of China was announced by the CCP on the 1 October 1949.