China 1945-1949. War, civil war and CCP victory. During the war China was divided into two sections. GMD China in the towns and cities on the coast and CCP China in the rural ‘liberation areas’. Chiang Kaishek – Military dictator – Generalissimo.
War, civil war and CCP victory
During the war China was divided into two sections. GMD China in the towns and cities on the coast and CCP China in the rural ‘liberation areas’
Used a political police force – Blueshirts – to destroy opposition.
Chiang wanted to modernise and unify China.
Tried to gain support from peasants by sending students into the countryside to help with the harvest, however failed to gain their support because of high taxes and famine.
Also failed to deal with other serious problems facing China like medical care and poverty
The GMD gained most support in towns and cities amongst the‘middle class’ in China.GMD China - 1945
Land was taken from big landlords and given to peasants. Rents and taxes were reduced.
The Red Army helped to improve farming methods – introduced new tools.
The CCP tried to make society more modern and equal.Banned many old practices (like foot-binding) and tried to encourage everyone to live equally.
They gained a lot of support from peasants.
The Red Army was respected for its disciplined behaviour and hard work.CCP China - 1945
Chiang also had the backing of most foreign countries.
The first offensive of the civil war was launched by the GMD in north China.
Over the next year the GMD won many battles against the CCP and had captured the CCP capital Yanan.The fighting begins….
By the end of 1947 the CCP had taken much of central and northern China by using Guerilla tactics.
Thousands of peasants joined the PLA.
Massive inflation caused many people in GMD towns/cities to switch their support to the communists.
The Blueshirts tried and failed to keep order – but the GMD was losing control rapidly.fighting continues...
The Red army is
PLA in 1946.
The war was over! The Communists had beaten the GMD!Chiang fled to Taiwan early in 1949 and set up a GMD led ‘Republic of China’.The creation of the People’s Republic of China was announced by the CCP on the 1 October 1949.