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China since 1945

China since 1945

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China since 1945

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  1. China since 1945 • From 1945 to 1949 China was involved in a civil war • In 1949 the Communists win and establish the People’s Republic of China • Mao becomes the leader of China Mao Tse-tung

  2. China since 1945 • Mao declared that China was against imperialism, feudalism, bureaucracy and democracy • He had many plans to change China and immediately put them into action • His new government enacted many plans to fix problems such as inflation and low production

  3. Mao’s Plans for China • The Great Leap Forward • Created communes (self-sufficient settlements containing farms and industries) • They did not work at all: production fell, life was difficult, China experienced bad weather, rewards were limited • The plan was abandoned after two years “Long live the general direction! Long live the Great Leap Forward! Long live the People’s Commune!”

  4. Mao’s Plans for China • After the failure of the Great Leap Forward Mao attempted a Cultural Revolution • The goal of the Cultural Revolution was to change the old order and establish a new socialist society • The Red Guard (young men and women) would enforce the policies of the revolution

  5. Mao’s Plans For China • The revolution was to destroy the four olds: old ideology, old thoughts, old habits and old customs • Those who opposed Mao were publicly punished • Farm production fell, factory work stopped and schools closed • As a result there was no economy, many people had left and there was no education • It was an enormous failure and Mao ended it in 1969

  6. Question Time! • Why would the people of China still support Mao after two very large failures? • Take a few moments to think about why the people might still be behind Mao. • Can you think of any examples in our history of when a president has a great failure and we still support him?

  7. Growing Division (1962-1965) • Mao Zedong vs. Deng Xiaoping • charismatic leadership vs. bureaucracy Deng Xiaoping

  8. Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) • Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution • commitment to revolution and “class struggle” • power struggle to succeed Mao • Phase I: the rise and fall of “red guards” • Phase II: the rise and fall of Lin Biao • Phase III: the rise and fall of the “Gang of Four”

  9. Phase I: Red Guards (1966-69)

  10. Phase I: Red Guards (1966-69) • Purge of party cadres • Deng Xiaoping • Purge of intellectuals

  11. Phase II: Lin Biao (1969-71) • the putative successor to Mao Zedong (tse-tung) • In 1971 Lin allegedly tried but failed • to assassinate Mao • had to flee to Soviet Union • His departure eroded the credibility of the entire leadership

  12. Phase III: the “Gang of Four” • 1972 – 1976 • power struggle between • the radical “Gang of Four”, led by Jiang Qing, Mao’s wife • Goal continue Cultural revolution…failed when Mao dies and his power is gone…gang of 4 put on trial and convicted….Dang Xiaoping takes power

  13. Diplomatic Breakthrough • 1971, PRC became the representative of China in UN (replaced ROC)

  14. Diplomatic Breakthrough • 1972, President Nixon visited Beijing

  15. Mao and Zhou Died in 1976 • Turning point in China’s postwar era • “Gang of Four” were arrested • End of the Cultural Revolution

  16. Mao’s legacies

  17. Reforms and Opening up • The 3rd Plenum of the 11th CCP Central Committee in 1978 • Deng Xiaoping’s ascendancy • economic modernization became focus • US-PRC diplomatic relations in 1979

  18. China since 1945 • Mao dies in 1976 and Deng Xiaoping comes to power. • Deng institutes the Four Modernizations, which focuses on improving agriculture, industry, science and technology as well as defense. • Deng was in power until his death in 1997

  19. Government in China Today • Currently known as the People’s Republic of China (PRC). • It is a single-party socialist republic (one party, in favor of the working class) • The Communist party holds power • The current president is Hu Jianto • Beijing is the capital city

  20. Review of China’s Population • Over 1.3 billion people (1/5 of the world’s population) • 56 recognized ethnic groups. The Han are the largest (92%) • Large population can be attributed to Mao

  21. Population in China • Efforts were made to limit the population • Only 2 children per family law • One Child Policy • Policies did not work that well • Rural families did not comply • Males regarded more highly than females

  22. Geography Review • China is the world’s second largest country by land area (9,326,410 km2) • China has a wide range of topography • There are numerous plains, plateaus, basins and mountains • Only 14% of the land is arable

  23. Chinese Language • Many dialects are spoken in China, but Mandarin is the most widely spoken • 70% of the people in China speak it • It is the most widely spoken language in the world (100 million people speak it worldwide

  24. Facts about the Chinese Language • It is nonphonetic-the written form gives no clues to its pronunciation • There are over 20,000 different characters • There are four major tones and a “toneless” pitch used. The meaning of a word can change depending on the tone • They use a base-ten number system (terms for 1 to 10; 11 would be “ten one”)

  25. Chinese Food • Cantonese and Chaozhou • Steaming, boiling and stir-frying • Dim Sum • Beijing and Shandong • Steamed bread and noodles rather than rice • Beijing duck Dim Sum Beijing Duck

  26. Chinese Food • Eastern China • Most diverse cuisine • Soups; “Red Cooking” (cooking in a stock of soy sauce and red wine) • Seafood along the coast Wuxi Spare Ribs

  27. Chinese Food • Sichuan (Szechuan) • Southwestern China • More than 4,000 dishes • Hottest and spiciest cuisine in China • Numerous sauces • Stir-frying, steaming and braising Kung Pao Chicken Twice Cooked Beef

  28. Religion in China • China is officially secular and atheist, but religion is allowed • Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism have been the dominant religions for almost 2,000 years • Some people practice Christianity (3-4%) and Islam (1-2%)

  29. Taoism • Daoism • Indigenous religion of China; the folk religion of China • Philosophy is centered on “the way”--recognizing the true nature of the universe • Emphasizes non-action, emptiness, detachment, flexibility, receptiveness, spontaneity and ways of speaking and guiding behavior

  30. Buddhism • “Teaching of the awakened one” • Buddhism traveled from India during the Han dynasty • It has been popular among both commoners and emperors • It is estimated that there are between 280 million to 350 million Buddhists. It is the world’s fifth largest religion. • 20-25% of China’s population is Buddhist

  31. Buddhism • The Four Noble Truths: in life their exists suffering which is caused by desire • Suffering • The cause of suffering • The cessation of suffering • The way leading to the cessation of suffering • Suffering can be ceased by following the Noble Eightfold Path

  32. Buddhism • The Noble Eightfold Path • Sila: morality • Right speech--one speaks in a non hurtful, truthful way • Right actions--avoiding actions that do harm • Right livelihood--one’s way of life does not harm any one • Samadhi: developing mastery over one’s mind • Right effort--making an effort to improve • Right awareness--mental ability to see things for what they are • Right concentration--being aware of the present reality • Prajna: wisdom that purifies the mind • Right thoughts--change in the pattern of thinking • Right understanding--understanding reality as it is, not as it appears to be

  33. Buddhism • The guiding principle of Buddhism is the Middle Way. It is the practice of non-extremism; a path of moderation. • All Buddhist branches have these commonalities: • All accept the Buddha as their teacher • All accept the Middle Way, the Four Noble Truth and the Noble Eightfold Path • All accept that everyone can pursue the path toward enlightenment • All accept the three types of Buddha and consider Buddhahood to be the highest attainment

  34. Confucianism • Developed from the teaching of Confucius • System of moral, social, political and religious thought • Greatly influenced China up until the 21st century

  35. Confucianism • Elements of the religion: • Ritual: system of norms for followers • Relationships: people hold different statuses in relationships • Filial Piety: respect shown to elders • Loyalty: respect show to ruler • Humaneness: the Golden Rule • Gentleman: everyone should strive to be a gentleman