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China under Mao Zedong 1949 - 1976. Outline. GMD-CCP Civil War (1946-1949) Recovery and Socialism (1949-1956) Rethinking the Soviet model (1956-1957) Great Leap Forward (1958-1961) Recovery & growing elite division (1962-5) Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-1976).

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Presentation Transcript
outline
Outline
  • GMD-CCP Civil War (1946-1949)
  • Recovery and Socialism (1949-1956)
  • Rethinking the Soviet model (1956-1957)
  • Great Leap Forward (1958-1961)
  • Recovery & growing elite division (1962-5)
  • Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
civil war 1946 1949
Civil War (1946 – 1949)
  • GMD: Guomindang (Nationalist Party)
    • Chiang Kai-shek (President)
  • CCP: Chinese Communist Party
    • Mao Zedong
mao zedong
Mao Zedong
  • A revolution to remove “3 big mountains”
    • imperialism
    • feudalism
    • bureaucrat-capitalism
  • A “United Front” of …
    • workers
    • peasants
    • petty bourgeoisie and national bourgeoisie
people s republic of china
People’s Republic of China
  • 1949-10-01, PRC, Beijing
  • Chairman: Mao Zedong
  • 5-Star Red Flag
  • Republic of China government retreated to Taiwan
economic reconstruction 1950s
Economic Reconstruction 1950s
  • Soviet Union model and assistance
  • land reform (eliminate landlord class)
  • heavy industry (state-owned enterprises)
  • First National People’s Congress (1954)
    • PRC Constitution
  • Zhou Enlai
    • Premier
    • Foreign Minister
great leap forward 1958 1960
Great Leap Forward (1958-1960)
  • abandon the Soviet model of economic development
    • Soviet “scientific planning”
  • mass mobilization
  • people’s communes
great leap forward 1958 19601
Great Leap Forward (1958-1960)
  • unrealistic output targets
    • industry
    • agricultural and human disaster
growing division 1962 1965
Growing Division (1962-1965)
  • Mao Zedong vs. Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping
  • charismatic leadership vs. bureaucracy
cultural revolution 1966 1976
Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
  • Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
    • commitment to revolution and “class struggle”
    • power struggle to succeed Mao
  • Phase I: the rise and fall of “red guards”
  • Phase II: the rise and fall of Lin Biao
  • Phase III: the rise and fall of the “Gang of Four”
phase i red guards 1966 691
Phase I: Red Guards (1966-69)
  • Purge of party cadres
    • Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping
  • Purge of intellectuals
phase ii lin biao 1969 71
Phase II: Lin Biao (1969-71)
  • the putative successor to Mao Zedong
    • the cult of personality around Mao
  • In 1971 Lin allegedly tried but failed
    • to assassinate Mao
    • to flee to Soviet Union (“9.13”)
  • “9.13” eroded the credibility
    • of the entire leadership
    • of the Cultural Revolution
phase iii the gang of four
Phase III: the “Gang of Four”
  • 1972 – 1976
  • power struggle between
    • the radical “Gang of Four”, led by Jiang Qing, Mao’s wife
    • the “moderates”, led by Premier Zhou Enlai
  • the fate of Deng Xiaoping
diplomatic breakthrough
Diplomatic Breakthrough
  • 1971, PRC became the representative of China in UN (replaced ROC)
diplomatic breakthrough1
Diplomatic Breakthrough
  • 1972, President Nixon visited Beijing
mao and zhou died in 1976
Mao and Zhou Died in 1976
  • Turning point in China’s postwar era
  • “Gang of Four” were arrested
  • End of the Cultural Revolution
reforms and opening up
Reforms and Opening up
  • The 3rd Plenum of the 11th CCP Central Committee in 1978
    • Deng Xiaoping’s ascendancy
    • economic modernization became focus
  • US-PRC diplomatic relations in 1979