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CHAPTER 11. Facilitating User Computing. END-USER COMPUTING. HANDS-ON USE OF COMPUTERS BY EMPLOYEES ENTER DATA MAKE INQUIRIES PREPARE REPORTS PERFORM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ANALYZE PROBLEMS DEVELOP WEB PAGES *. PRIMARY DRIVERS. AVAILABILITY OF LOW-COST MICROCOMPUTERS:

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chapter 11

CHAPTER 11

Facilitating

User Computing

end user computing
END-USER COMPUTING
  • HANDS-ON USE OF COMPUTERS BY EMPLOYEES
  • ENTER DATA
  • MAKE INQUIRIES
  • PREPARE REPORTS
  • PERFORM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
  • ANALYZE PROBLEMS
  • DEVELOP WEB PAGES

*

primary drivers
PRIMARY DRIVERS
  • AVAILABILITY OF LOW-COST MICROCOMPUTERS:
    • HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES
    • COMPUTER LITERACY AMONG COLLEGE GRADUATES, PROFESSIONALS
  • INCREASED USER FRUSTRATIONS ABOUT NEW PROJECT BACKLOGS

*

user application development
USER APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT
  • USE OF COMPUTER TOOLS
  • DEVELOP BUSINESS APPLICATIONS
  • USERS ARE NOT IS SPECIALISTS
  • INVOLVES APPLICATION, TOOL & DEVELOPER

*

user developed applications advantages
USER-DEVELOPED APPLICATIONSADVANTAGES
  • INCREASED USER CONTROL OVER PROJECT
  • INCREASED USER ACCEPTANCE OF SOLUTION
  • FREES IS RESOURCES
  • INCREASES USERS’ KNOWLEDGE OF IT

*

user developed applications disadvantages
USER-DEVELOPED APPLICATIONSDISADVANTAGES
  • LOSS OF QUALITY CONTROL
  • INCREASES OPERATIONAL RISKS DUE TO DEVELOPED TURNOVER
  • POTENTIAL LABOR/TIME INEFFICIENCIES
  • LOSS OF INTEGRATION OPPORTUNITIES/CAPABILITIES

*

characteristics
CHARACTERISTICS
  • APPLICATION:
    • SCOPE: Personal, departmental, organizational
    • CRITICALITY/IMPACT: Risk exposure
    • SIZE & USAGE: One-time, periodic, ongoing
    • PROBLEM COMPLEXITY: Structure, how common is task?

*

characteristics8
CHARACTERISTICS
  • TOOL:
    • SOPHISTICATION, COMPLEXITY
    • INTERCONNECTEDNESS
  • DEVELOPER:
    • USER SKILLS, EXPERIENCE, AVAILABILITY
    • IS SPECIALIST SKILLS, EXPERIENCE, AVAILABILITY

*

extent of interconnectedness stage extent of interconnectedness
EXTENT OF INTERCONNECTEDNESS*STAGE EXTENT OF INTERCONNECTEDNESS
  • ISOLATION: Application does not use or create data for another application
  • STAND-ALONE: Application uses manually entered computer-generated data from reports, printouts
  • MANUAL INTEGRATION: Data electronically transferred from another application, manually (e.g., file on disk)

*

* Adapted from Huff, Munro & Martin, 1988

extent of interconnectedness stage extent of interconnectedness10
EXTENT OF INTERCONNECTEDNESS*STAGE EXTENT OF INTERCONNECTEDNESS
  • AUTOMATED INTEGRATION: Application electronically connected with one or more databases/applications using automated scripts
  • DISTRIBUTED INTEGRATION: Application uses data created, stored, maintained by organization’s systems under control of IS specialists

*

* Adapted from Huff, Munro & Martin, 1988

guidelines for choosing development process

DEVELOPED FOR OTHER USERS

DEVELOPED FOR SELF USER ONLY

SMALL, SIMPLE

LARGE, COMPLEX

GUIDELINES FOR CHOOSING DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

1. SDLC OR PROTOTYPING, DISCIPLINED APPROACH TO DEFINITION & IMPLEMENTATION

2. SDLC, CLEAR “HANDS-OFF” BETWEEN PHASES

3. “COLLAPSED” LIFE CYCLE

4. DISCIPLINED, ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

leveraging end user computing

ORGANIZATION LEVEL

CONTEXT:

ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL FACTORS

DEPARTMENTAL LEVEL FACTORS

STATUS OF IS/USER PARTNERSHIP

STRATEGY

SUPPORT & CONTROL ACTIONS

TECHNOLOGY

INDIVIDUAL LEVEL

USER DEVELOPER

DEVELOPMENT

PROCESS

TASK

TOOL

LEVERAGING END-USER COMPUTING*

*Based on Branceau & Brown, 1993

organizational level
ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL
  • STRATEGY: Strategic objectives and approach to end-user computing
  • TECHNOLOGY: Range & accessibility of end-user tools
  • SUPPORT & CONTROL ACTIONS: Support services, control policies & procedures

*

expansion control matrix

HIGH

LOW

LOW

HIGH

EXPANSION/CONTROL MATRIX*

EXPANSION

CONTROL

*Based on Monroe et al., 1987-1988; Brancheau & Amoroso, 1990

evolution of information center stage one
EVOLUTION OF INFORMATION CENTERSTAGE ONE:
  • REACTIVE SERVICES
  • INDIVIDUAL SOLUTIONS
  • PRODUCT TRAINING
  • ALL NEEDS SUPPORTED
  • COMPUTER LITERACY TRAINING
  • ONE-WAY RELATIONSHIPS

*

evolution of information center stage two
EVOLUTION OF INFORMATION CENTERSTAGE TWO:
  • PROACTIVE SERVICES
  • DEPARTMENTAL SOLUTIONS
  • BUSINESS PROBLEM-SOLVING
  • HIGH-PAYOFF NEEDS SUPPORTED
  • INFORMATION LITERACY EDUCATION
  • ALLIANCE: IS/USER ALLIANCE

*

common support services
COMMON SUPPORT SERVICES
  • TROUBLESHOOTING
  • CONSULTING
  • TRAINING & IS EDUCATION
  • PRODUCT RESEARCH & EVALUATION
  • INFORMATION SHARING
  • TOOL SELECTION & PURCHASING
  • TOOL INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE & UPGRADING

*

common policies procedures
COMMON POLICIES & PROCEDURES
  • PRODUCT STANDARDS
  • ERGONOMICS
  • PRODUCT PURCHASES
  • INVENTORY CONTROL
  • UPGRADE PROCEDURES
  • QUALITY REVIEW
  • IDENTIFYING CRITICAL APPLICATIONS & DATA

*

common policies procedures19
COMMON POLICIES & PROCEDURES
  • DATA ACCESS
  • BACKUP PROCEDURES
  • AUDIT TRAILS
  • DOCUMENTATION STANDARDS
  • UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS
  • UNAUTHORIZED SOFTWARE COPYING
  • VIRUS PROTECTION

*

chapter 1120

CHAPTER 11

Facilitating

User Computing