What is a pest organism? • Depends on who is defining it!
What is a pest? • Unwanted or undesirable organism • Reduces value of human resources (food, feed, water, or space) • Injures humans, animals, crops, structures, and possessions • Spreads or causes disease • Causes annoyance, discomfort, inconvenience, interference
What is Integrated Pest Management? • A planned method to manage pests • Control, not eradication is the goal • Examines ecosystem impacts • Examines human health impacts • Evaluates effectiveness constantly • Does not rely solely on chemical pesticides (but includes them when appropriate)
Biological Control(one method used in IPC) • The planned introduction of living organisms to control the population of pest organisms • Relies on predation, parasitism or herbivores • Usually done by government authorities (e.g. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources) • Extensive research before it is done – examining ecosystem effects- such as potential for organism to become an invasive species
Biological Control – 3 methods • Conservation of natural enemies (e.g. providing habitat / food source for predator/parasite species) • Classical – introduce a foreign species to prey on / parasitize another • Augmentation – supplemental release of natural enemies to increase their population
Examples • Asian ladybeetles released in North America (1980s) to control aphidsVERY SUCCESSFUL!
Maybe too successful! • Outcompeted native ladybeetles for food (aphids) and the native species population has decreased • Now considered a nuisance themselves by many as they tend to overwinter indoors and can stain things when squashed
Parasitic Wasps or Flies • Wasps or flies lay their eggs on or in another insect. Developing larvae use the host insect as food.
Herbivores to control weeds • Example: introduction of moth species to control Leafy Spurge (British Columbia)Before After
Video links • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hj3DwimxvvY • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rLtUk-W5Gpk