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What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM) ?. Learning Objectives. Create an understanding of IPM Importance of IPM to Producers Importance of IPM to the environment Importance of IPM to human health and safety What are IPM strategies Advantages and limitations to IPM. Why Study IPM?.

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Create an understanding of IPM
  • Importance of IPM to Producers
  • Importance of IPM to the environment
  • Importance of IPM to human health and safety
  • What are IPM strategies
  • Advantages and limitations to IPM
why study ipm
Why Study IPM?
  • Why a new approach to pest management is needed:
    • 1920’s cotton pest management
    • “Pesticide Treadmill” of 1960’s – 1970’s
      • Pesticide resistance
      • Secondary pest outbreaks
      • Environmental concerns
    • IPM concept “reborn” in 1970’s
ipm is
IPM is:

A pest management philosophy that utilizes all suitable pest management techniques and methods to keep pest populations below economically injurious levels. Each pest management technique must be environmentally sound and compatible with producer objectives.

a pest management philosophy
“A pest management philosophy….. “
  • Recognizes there is no “cure-all” in pest control.
    • Dependence on any one pest management method will have undesirable effects.
  • Determine and correct the cause of the pest problem.
    • Understanding Pest biology and ecology is essential.
    • Manipulate the environment to the crop’s advantage and to the detriment of the pest.
  • Recognizes that eradication of a pest is seldom necessary or even desirable, and generally not possible.
    • Some damage is unavoidable and acceptable
ipm is a continuum not an end
IPM is a continuum, not an end.

Good

Fair

Better

Poor

Best

utilizes all suitable pest management tactics
“Utilizes all suitable pest management tactics…………..”
  • Pesticides
  • Cultural
  • Mechanical
  • Sanitary
  • Natural
  • Biological
  • Host Plant Resistance

NOTE: Some tactics fall

Into several categories.

should pesticides be used in an ipm program
Should Pesticides be used in an IPM Program?
  • Pesticides can to be used in an IPM program, however only as a last resort and of course in a manner that is legal.
  • Pesticides are to be used when there is no risk of environmental damage or when benefits outweigh the risks. Use pesticides only when other control practices aren’t available, economical or practical.
  • Must monitor pest populations in the field.
    • Identify the pest
    • Compare pest population and the economic threshold
    • Life stage susceptible to pesticide?
    • Crop stage and preventable loss.
what is cultural control
What is “Cultural Control”
  • Agronomic practices that are designed to:
    • Optimize growing conditions for the crop. Anything that increases a crop’s competitive edge will result in increased tolerance to pests often resulting in reduced pesticide use.
    • Create unfavorable conditions for the pest
what is mechanical control
What is Mechanical Control?
  • Uses machinery and/or other tools to control pests
    • Tillage
    • Physical barriers
what is sanitary control
What is Sanitary Control?
  • Methods to avoid introducing a pest into a field
    • Cleaning field equipment
    • Planting certified seed
    • Quarantines
what is natural control
What is Natural Control?
  • Enhancement of naturally occurring pest management methods
    • Beneficial insects
    • Beneficial diseases
what is biological control
What is Biological Control?
  • Manipulation of biological organism to control pests
    • Release of predators/parasites/disease of an insect or weed
    • Can be time consuming, expensive and difficult
what is host plant resistance
What is Host Plant Resistance?
  • Manipulating the crop to withstand or tolerate pests
    • Natural breeding method
    • Genetically modified plants
    • Not a permanent method of control
    • Examples: Glandular-haired Alfalfa, Bt Corn,
to keep pests below the economic injury level
“To Keep Pests Below the Economic Injury Level”
  • Economic Injury Level:
    • Cost of control = $ amount of damage caused by the pest
      • Includes amount of pest damage
      • Cost of each control practice
    • Are determined through extensive research
    • Economic Injury Level is the information that is necessary to develop an Economic Threshold, which is used by crop advisors
economic threshold
Economic Threshold
  • Pest Population at which a grower must take action to prevent a pest populations from reaching the economic injury level
    • Economic threshold is slightly below the economic injury level
    • Pest populations must be increasing
slide17

Economic Injury Level

Economic Threshold

Pest

Density

PestPopulation

Time

economic threshold example european corn borer on corn
Economic Threshold Example: European Corn Borer on Corn
  • Field Sampling Data needed:
    • % plants infested
    • Ave. number of larvae/plant
  • Crop Management Data Needed
    • Expected yield (bu/A)
    • Expected selling price of the crop
  • Cost of pest control
1st generation european corn borer economic threshold worksheet
1st Generation European Corn BorerEconomic Threshold Worksheet
  • ___% of 100 plants infested x ___average # of borers/plantA= ___average borers/plant.
  • ___average borers/plant x 5% yield loss per borer = ___% yield loss.
  • ___% yield loss x ___expected yield (bu/A) =___ bu/A loss
  • ___bu/A loss x ___$ expected selling price/bu =___ $ loss/A
  • $__ loss/A x___ % controlB= $ ___ preventable loss/A
  • $___ preventable loss/A - $ ___cost of control/A = $ gain (+) or loss (-) per acre if treatment is applied

A Determined by checking whorls from 20 plants.

B Assume 80% control for most products

1st generation european corn borer economic threshold worksheet20
1st Generation European Corn BorerEconomic Threshold Worksheet
  • 0.67 (% of 100 plants infested) X 2 (average # of borers/plant)A+=1.34 (averageborers/plant).
  • 1.34 (average borers/plant) X5(% yield loss per borer) =0.067 (% yield loss).
  • 0.67 (% yield loss) x 120 (expected yield in bu/A) =8.04 (bu/A loss)
  • 8.04 bu/A loss x$2.25 expected selling price/bu =$18.09$ loss/A
  • $18.09 (loss/A) x80 (% controlB)=$ 14.47 (preventable loss/A)
  • $14.47 (preventable loss/A) -$ 15.00 (cost of control/A) =- $0.53 (gain (+) or loss (-) per acre if treatment is applied)

A Determined by checking whorls from 20 plants.

B Assume 80% control for most products

what ipm is and isn t
What IPM Is and Isn’t
  • Stresses a multi disciplinary approach to pest management
    • Entomology
    • Plant Pathology
    • Nematology
    • Weed Science
    • Crop Sciences (Horticulture/Agronomy)
    • Soil Science
    • Ecology
ipm is not static
IPM is not static
  • New Pests
    • Soybean aphids, bean leaf beetle,
  • New Races/strains of pests
    • Western corn rootworm
  • Weed Species shifts
    • Roundup ready technology
    • Tillage system
  • Pesticide Resistance
    • Colorado Potato Beetle
    • Common lambsquarters
four basic principles of ipm
Four Basic Principles of IPM

1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships

2) Requires advanced planning

3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices

4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions

1a understanding crop growth and development
1a. Understanding Crop Growth and Development
  • How do you grow a healthy

crop?

  • When is the crop most

susceptible to pest damage?

  • When is the crop under stress?
slide29
1b. Understanding the Pest
  • Proper ID
  • Understanding of Pest Life cycle
    • When is it present
    • When is it most susceptible to control-
    • ”Weak Link”
slide30

Meadow Spittlebug nymph

Potato Leafhopper nymph

slide31

Giant foxtail

Large crabgrass

1c understanding the pest and their life cycle
1c. Understanding the Pest and Their Life Cycle
  • When is the pest present
  • When is it most susceptible to

control-”Weak Link”

  • When is too late to control
1d understanding the environment
1d. Understanding the Environment
  • How does it affect crop growth
        • Stress
        • Time within susceptible stage
  • How it affects pest development
        • High mortality
        • High survival
basic principles of ipm
Basic Principles of IPM

1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships

2) Requires Advanced Planning

3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices

4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions

basic principles of ipm35
Basic Principles of IPM

1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships

2) Requires Advanced Planning

3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices

4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions

basic principles of ipm36
Basic Principles of IPM

1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships

2) Requires Advanced Planning

3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices

4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions

potato leafhopper scouting
Potato leafhopper scouting
  • Equipment:
    • 15 in diameter insect sweep net.
  • Timing:
    • Start on regrowth of second crop alfalfa
  • Frequency:
    • Scout once each week.
  • Scouting pattern:
    • walk a W-shaped pattern in the field
potato leafhopper scouting38
Potato leafhopper scouting
  • Take 20 consecutive sweeps in each of 5 areas along the W-shaped pattern (100 total sweeps)
  • Count the total number of Potato leafhopper nymphs and adults divide by 100 (total number of sweeps)
benefits of an ipm program
Benefits of an IPM Program
  • Protects environment through elimination of unnecessary pesticide applications
  • Improves Profitability
  • Reduces risk of crop loss by a pest
  • Peace of Mind
disadvantages of an ipm program
Disadvantages of an IPM Program
  • Requires a higher degree of management
  • More labor intensive
  • Success can be weather dependent
career opportunities in ipm
Career opportunities in IPM
  • Crop Advisors
    • Independent
    • Industry
  • Ag. Industries
    • Sales (chemical, seed)
    • Research
    • Technical services
  • Teaching
    • Cooperative Extension
    • High school
    • Technical college
education
Education
  • 2 or 4 year degree
  • Major Field of Study
    • Agronomy
    • Soil Science
  • Areas of interest
    • Weed science
    • Entomology
    • Plant Pathology
possible coursework
Possible coursework
  • Crop Management
  • Weed Management
  • Entomology
  • Plant Nutrition
  • Soil Conservation
  • Ecology
  • Plant Pathology
  • Plant Physiology
  • Business Management