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Pangea : The hypothetical landmass that existed when all continents were joined, from about 300 to 200 million years ago. Continental Drift Theory: Idea that the continents were once one continent but they have moved to be separate continents today.

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Pangea: The hypothetical landmass that existed when all continents were joined, from about 300 to 200 million years ago.


Continental Drift Theory: Idea that the continents were once one continent but they have moved to be separate continents today.


Plate Tectonics: The Earth is made up of 14 different Plates in which we are floating on. When the plates collide they can create earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, tsunamis or geysers.

divergent plate movement
Divergent Plate Movement

Boundary where two plates are moving away from each other and new crust is forming from magma that rises to the Earth's surface between the two plates.

oceanic convergent plate movement and subduction zone

Subduction Zone is the sideways and downward movement of the edge of a plate of the earth's crust into the mantle beneath another plate.

OceanicConvergent Plate Movement and Subduction Zone

Oceanic Convergent Plate Movement is when an oceanic plate and continental plate collide the and crust is destroyed and recycled back into the interior of the Earth as one plate dives under another.

continental convergent plate movement
Continental Convergent Plate Movement

When two continental plates collide head-on. The crust tends to buckle and be pushed upward or sideways.


Magma: Molten material beneath or within the earth's crust, from which igneous rock is formed.

Lava: The molten, fluid rock that issues from a volcano or volcanic vent.



  • Cinder Cone Volcano
  • Shield Volcano
  • Composite Volcano
cinder cones
Cinder Cones

A type of volcano made of many layers of broken rocks and ash. Wizard Island found in Crater Lake and Lava Butte in Oregon are examples.

Simplest type of volcano.
  • Built from particles and blobs of congealed lava ejected from a single vent
  • Breaks into small fragments that solidify and fall as cinders around the vent to form a circular or oval cone
  • Cinder cones are numerous in western North America
shield volcanoes
Shield Volcanoes

This volcano is made from many layers of lava. This lava was very fluid when it flowed out of the volcano. These volcanoes have very large bases. Most Hawaiian volcanoes are this type.

Built almost entirely of fluid lava flows.
  • Profile much like that of a warrior's shield.
  • Lava pours out in all directions from a central summit vent, or group of vents, building a broad, gently sloping cone of flat, domical shape.
  • Some of the largest volcanoes in the world are shield volcanoes.
composite volcanoes
Composite Volcanoes

This volcano is made of alternating layers of ash and lava. They are very explosive volcanoes. Mt. St. Helens and Mt. Rainier is this type.

Some of the Earth's grandest mountains are composite volcanoes--sometimes called stratovolcanoes.
  • Typically steep-sided, symmetrical cones of large dimension built of alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, blocks.
  • Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Hood in Oregon, and Mount St. Helens and Mount Rainier in Washington.
  • Most composite volcanoes have a crater at the summit which contains a central vent or a clustered group of vents.
  • Lavas either flow through breaks in the crater wall or issue from fissures on the flanks of the cone.

Crater Lake is a caldera, the remains of an ancient Pleistocene volcano named Mt. Mazama. The caldera was formed when Mt. Mazama violently erupted some 7600 years ago, causing the entire top of the mountain to fall in on its self. Once it collapsed and sealed, snow melt and rain filled the caldera, and formed what we know now as Crater Lake.


Earthquake: A sudden violent movement of the earth's crust caused by the release of stress faults or by volcanic activity.