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Chapter 6

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  1. Chapter 6 French Rule in Louisiana Louisiana's French Colonial Era: Struggle and Survival

  2. Louis Joliet Rene’ Robert Cavalier Sieur de La Salle Henri de Tonti Pierre Le Moyne Sieur d’Ibberville Jean Baptiste Le Moyne Sieur de Bienville Antoine Crozat Antoine de Lamonthe Sieur de Cadillac Lois Juchereau de St. Denis John Law Etienne de Perier Pierre Francois de Rigaud Marquis de Vaudreuail Louis Billouart Chevalier de Kerlerec Important People of Chapter 6

  3. Chapter 6 Section 1 Section One - "Exploring the Mississippi" (pp 196-198) Vocabulary 1. New World - a way of referring to North America 2. Northwest Passage - a water route that early Europeans believed went through the North American continent to Asia 3. expedition- a journey for a specific purpose, such as exploration 4. colony - a group of people who settle in a distant land but who are still under the control of their native land Questions 1. What was the purpose of the French trading posts in North America? - to take advantage of the profitable fur trade that would support the colony2. For whom was Louisiana named and what does Louisiana mean? - Louisiana is named after King Louis XIV of France and it means "Land of Louis" or “Louis' land". 3. What interest did Catholic priests have in exploration in the Americas? - to bring Christianity to the Native Americans

  4. French established their first trading posts in Canada They were fur traders Created such a rich economic venture for France it became known as New France Traders wanted to expand their trading area by finding a way to China and India They talked of a Northwest Passage-a mysterious water route across the American continent Exploring the Mississippi

  5. Joliet and Marquette • 1663, French fur trader Louis Joliet and Jesuit priest Marquette along with an expedition team set out to explore this “Northwest Passage” • Taught by the Native Americans in the North the team built birchbark canoes , gathered useful food and set out

  6. Joliet and Marquette • From Canada the team made their way as far as the Mississippi River to the Mouth of the Aransas River • Natives of the Quapaw tribe explained the dangers of going further down the river-The Spanish had supplied southern tribes with guns and ammunition, leading them to go back North

  7. Rene’ Robert Cavalier Sieur de La Salle • Dreamt of finding a route to China • Had a Canadian trading post called LaChine (China) in which other traders just found funny • It too him many years and struggles, but eventually he made his trip to find China a reality

  8. Henri de Tonti • La Salle chose Henri de Tonti as his lieutenant for the trip. • Tonti was known for his bravery in battle • Legend says in battle, Tonti amputated his own wounded hand and then continued fighting • Nick named “Iron Hnd”

  9. La Salle’s Journey to China? • The team was made up of La Salle, Tonti, priests, Natives and their families • Feb. 1682, they enter the upper Mississippi River • April 1682, they reached the Mouth of the river • Never getting to China! 

  10. La Salle chooses the Land of Louis over China! • As the team reached the mouth of the Mississippi River a formal solemn ceremony was held (in Plaquemines Parish) • La Salle, as any other good Frenchman, claimed all the land drained by the Mississippi River for his king, King Louis XIV • He honored the king by naming the land Louisiana, which means “LAND OF LOUIS”

  11. Better let the king know! • La Salle returned to France to report his discovery to the kin • The king rewarded him with a small fleet of ships and 30 colonists and directed him to start a colony • Louisiana is official! King Louis XIV ain’t he a cutie?

  12. La Salle began his trip to his new home after meeting with the king This trip was not successful-he missed the Mississippi River! He ended up at Matagorda Bay in Texas Frightened and frustrated, the colonist were not happy Many died on the trip there and were not supplied enough to last longer than the trip to Louisiana La Salle vowed to bring them back to Canada by land Colonist men mutinied and murdered La Salle His dreams ended in complete failure La Salle returns to Louisiana, well maybe not…

  13. Chapter 6 Section 2 Section Two - "Colonizing Louisiana" (pp. 200-204) Questions 1. Where was the first French fort established along the Gulf of Mexico? - Fort Maurepas near the present-day city of Biloxi (They needed to build a fort to keep possession of their new colony.) (They didn't build the first fort on the Mississippi River because the soil was too poor.) 2. Which countries tried to stop French efforts to colonize Louisiana? - England and Spain 3. How did Bienville keep the English away from the Mississippi River? - He bluffed his way out at a curve on the river now called English Turn.

  14. Colonizing Louisiana • France colonizing and claiming the Mississippi made other countries nervous • Spain and Britain took this as a threat • Determined to protect its colonies, Spain built a fort on the Gulf of Mexico at Pensacola Bay • The British hoped for a fort at the mouth of the Mississippi

  15. Keeping up with the Jones’ • Louis XIV heard the rumblings of other countries and knew France had to build a fort immediately • First he had to chose a good leader to take on the task • Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur d’Iberville, a Canadian commander was chosen to lead the effort to build a French fort • Iberville chose his war hardened 18 year old brother Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville to accompany him.

  16. A new fort for France • Iberville was charged with establishing a base from which to control the mouth of the Mississippi River • The site must be a good location for a colony • More importantly, the site must provide France with raw materials (Mercantilism) for manufacturers in France

  17. The Mississippi • As they came to the mouth of the Mississippi, Iberville described the day, “March 3, Mardi Gras Day…I went up this river…two leagues and a half above the mouth it forks into three branches”

  18. Is it really the Mississippi • To make sure that this was the Mississippi, Iberville and Bienville questioned the local natives • Soon they found a chief who brought a letter from Henri de Tonti written in 1699 (13 years after La Salle’s death) • The letter was from Tonti to La Salle was an encouraging message of the colony • Iberville and Bienville found the Mississippi river and began building the fort • This was a very poor place for a fort so they moved east along the coast to present day Ocean Springs, MS (next to Biloxi) and built the first French fort, Fort Maurapas

  19. Uneasy times at the French Settlement • When finished, Iberville returned to France for supplies, soldiers and settlers • While gone the fort suffered food shortage and lack of supplies • The men at the fort were also being attacked by the Chickasaw, friends of the British Rebuilt Ft. Maurapas Rebuilt Ft. Maurapas after Katrina

  20. Turn for the better? • Bienville spent time exploring the river • On one exploration, Bienville, in a very small boat went down river and came across a 12 gun British ship • Pretending he had more ships, Bienville told the British that just up river were many French vessels and troops and that the river was controlled by the French • HE hinted of an attack if the British did not leave • Believing Bienville, the British turned around and sailed away • The place where this occurred is on maps today, it is called English Turn

  21. Restless natives…or rude French • The local natives were very helpful in the beginnings of the colony • They shared food and supplies with the needy French settlers • The soldiers were even invited to live with the natives • To repay the great hospitality of the natives, the French settlers treated them as conquered people and took them as slaves and purposely stared conflicts with in tribes

  22. Expanding-More Forts for France • After the English Turn incident, Iberville felt a fort at the mouth of the Mississippi was needed • Fort Maurapas needed to be moved, which was normal for first time forts • The first site flooded and the soil was too sandy to grow food • The new fort, Fort Louis, was located where it would keep the English out of Mobile Bay (Alabama)

  23. Forget about the Forts • In Europe the War for Spanish Succession was happening • The war created unrest throughout Europe • French supply ships sailed to places considered more important to the war effort • Abandoned, the colony was left without proper defense or assistance at a time when it was still very shaky

  24. Chapter 6 Section 3 Section Three - "Louisiana as a Proprietorship" (pp. 205-212)Vocabulary1. proprietorship - a system that gave an individual a charter (or contract) to operate a colony as a business 2. Superior Council - a group existing during the French colonial period that was in charge of judicial matters and was presided over by the commissary commissioner (It was the government for French Louisiana.) 3. cash crop- a crop that is raised to make a profitQuestions 1. Why did the French government try a proprietorship for the Louisiana colony/ - It was broke and couldn't afford to run Louisiana. (Crozat was the first proprietor of Louisiana. He failed because he was only interested in making a profit for himself.) 2. Why did the structure of the French colonial government cause problems in the Louisiana colony? - The governor of the colony didn't have full control since the money was controlled by someone called the commissary commissioner.3. What was the purpose of a trip by St. Denis to Texas? - St. Denis went to build up trade with the Spanish in Texas. He ended up establishing the town of Natchitoches. (Natchitoches is the oldest town in Louisiana and the area known as the Louisiana Purchase, founded in 1714.)

  25. Louisiana as a Proprietorship • 1701 Bienville became the leader of the colony • The colony was so bad off the Bienville had to beg for food from the Spanish in Pensacola • Iberville never returned to the colony, he left Europe for Louisiana but died of Yellow Fever before he reached the colony

  26. Problems during the French Period • Colonial officials quarreled because of the structure of the government • The governor was usually a naval officer who was in charge of both military and general administration • The colony had a business manager called the Commissionary Commissioner who was in charge of the budget and certain parts of the judicial system • The power structure was not clear and required two officials to supervise each other which cause trouble between the two

  27. After the War of Spanish Succession • After the War of Spanish Succession, France put its attention back on its abandoned colony • The French joined in the war and were just about bankrupt and Louisiana was too expensive to maintain • France needed Louisiana though as a buffer against Britain • British colonies were expanding South and West making the French uneasy

  28. How can France Afford Louisiana? • France needs a new source of funding • King Louis decided to try a proprietorship to give a contract to operate the colony as a business • The proprietor was given almost total control but had to meet certain requirements • Send supplies and settlers to the colony regularly • Follow the French laws

  29. Antoine Crozat • 1712, the French government gave the first proprietorship to Antoine Crozat • Chosen because he loaned huge amounts of money to the French government for the war effort-Louis felt this man would be a good choice being how he helped during the war • A businessman that had little interest in a colony or settler, rather he was driven by the possibility of finding gold in the colony

  30. Crozat chooses a governor for his colony • Antoine de Lamothe, Sieur de Cadillac was chosen to lead the colony • Had trouble as a leader first by refusing to smoke te calumet with river tribes which was more than an insult, but to Native Americans it was a threat of war • He also had a very unpleasant personality which many settlers and government officials of the colony did not like

  31. Cadillac’s good ideas • 1712 Cadillac established a Superior Council to help govern the colony • This council was in charge of judicial matters • Suggested and implemented cash crops, such as indigo and tobacco

  32. Fort St. Jean Baptiste • Cadillac chose Louis Juchereau de St. Denis to establish a fort at present day Natchitoches (named for the Native American tribe) • St. Denis was familiar with the natives and the land, he was also skilled in diplomacy and exploration • Crozat and Cadillac were interested in a fort in Natchitoches to build a trade relationship with the Spanish that were close by • Built at present day Natchitoches on the banks of the Red River in 1714

  33. French and Spanish Friends? • St. Denis asked to have a trade relationship with the Spanish colonies in Texas, but was told it was not allowed • Spanish colonists traded, though they could have been jailed for this • The French brought guns, ammunition, gun powder, work animals and liquor to trade • The Spanish were interested mostly in medicine and the French were interested in getting to Spanish silver

  34. A Struggling Colony • Louis XIV dies in 1712 and government support for the colony died with him • Problems began to overwhelm the colony • Colonist not interested in agriculture • Only trade was smuggling goods to the Spanish • Colonists were not encouraged to make friends with the natives

  35. Crozat’s Failure • No profit was made from the colony more expenses than anything • Never sent supplies to the colonists in the required amounts stated in the proprietorship contract • Never found gold or silver in the colony, so his promised riches did not exist. • 1717 Crozat surrendered his proprietorship charter back to the French government

  36. Chapter 6: Section 4 Vocabulary • Speculator: one who buys items (such as land) hoping they will increase in value and, when sold, provide a profit • Land Grants: a parcel of land given to the directors of the Company of the West under the condition that they would bring settlers to the colony • Cote Des Allemades: German Coast • Mississippi Bubble: the collapse of the French investment company, the Company of the West • Slave: a person who is bound to a life of service to others and is considered property • Plantations: a large estate or farm • Code Noir: a set of laws governing the conduct of the slaves during the French colonial period Questions • What was the purpose of the Company of the West? To make money for the investors as well as increase income for the French government and improve the French economy by taking over the proprietorship of the Louisiana colony • How did the German settlers help save the colony? They produced enough food to keep the people from starving • Why did the Natchez Indians finally attack the French? Captain Chepart wanted the Natchez to move immediately off their sacred land so that they could use the good land for crops.

  37. Had organized the Bank of France Considered a brilliant financer He was a speculator, which meant he would by items hoping they will increase in value John Law

  38. John Law created the Company of the West, an investment company, to take over the proprietorship of the Louisiana colony Law’s goal: to make money for the investors as well as to increase income for the French government and improve the French economy. Later expanded-buying other trading companies- became the Company of the Indies John Law: Company of the West

  39. In 1719 the company was given the right to coin money and collect all taxes Law convinced people that there would be profit in the venture causing the value of the Company to rise. He made plans to operate the colony by bringing back Bienville as governor. John Law: Company of the Indies

  40. Bienville had long wanted to build a town that would serve as a commercial center of the Mississippi. Bienville and the king’s engineers designed and laid out the city of New Orleans John Law: The New Colony

  41. NEED FOR COLONIST!! All of the directors of the company were given large land grants as long as they brought settlers to the colony. SCARY stories kept French peasants from leaving France for harder times in the New World John Law: The new Colony

  42. To change Louisiana’s bad image, Law launched one of the earliest real estate ad campaigns. Hopeless German farmers upset with their current conditions read these ads and were swayed to move. They settled in the land above New Orleans which became known as Cote Des Allemandes, the German coast. Credited with saving the colony because they were willing to work. The Search is ON!

  43. No more volunteers so prisoners were sent to the colony instead of jail. At first they were the “non dangerous” criminals like debtors and smugglers Then they started sending in the riff-raff. A “finder’s fee” for locating potential colonists led to families being kidnapped The Search is ON!

  44. Law’s publicity promised huge profits, but when the hardships caused the investors to question their investment the “bubble burst” The company collapsed because it did not have enough money to pay the investors The end had come for the huge risk called the Mississippi Bubble Another one bites the dust: after the financial disaster, Law had to flee Paris in disgrace. The Company still controlled the colony, but a few things had to be addressed by the French government: Needed an adequate army More dependable settlers Good export crop The Collapse of the Mississippi Bubble

  45. Shiploads of slaves were first brought to the colony in 1716 and the numbers continued to increase Came from West Africa, where their cultures long harvested rice and indigo Their knowledge of cultivating indigo and tobacco led to LA’s first cash crops A plantation agriculture system grew from this These slaves were an essential part in building New Orleans The Code Noir

  46. Bienville established the Code Noir to help manage the large numbers of slaves The Code Noir was a set of laws that governed the conduct of slaves (also expelled Jewish people from the area) Purpose was to protect slaves as property Code Noir

  47. Law’s publicity promised huge profits, but when the hardships caused the investors to question their investment the “bubble burst” The company collapsed because it did not have enough money to pay the investors The end had come for the huge risk called the Mississippi Bubble Another one bites the dust: after the financial disaster, Law had to flee Paris in disgrace. The Company still controlled the colony, but a few things had to be addressed by the French government: Needed an adequate army More dependable settlers Good export crop The Collapse of the Mississippi Bubble

  48. Shiploads of slaves were first brought to the colony in 1716 and the numbers continued to increase Came from West Africa, where their cultures long harvested rice and indigo Their knowledge of cultivating indigo and tobacco led to LA’s first cash crops A plantation agriculture system grew from this These slaves were an essential part in building New Orleans The Code Noir

  49. Bienville established the Code Noir to help manage the large numbers of slaves The Code Noir was a set of laws that governed the conduct of slaves (also expelled Jewish people from the area) Purpose was to protect slaves as property Code Noir

  50. The Slave Trade