CAUSES NATIONALISM IMPERIALISM MILITARISM ALLIANCE SYSTEM
NATIONALISM • Nationalism: Loyalty and devotion to your country. • Many nation-states were guided by their own self-interest and success. • By 1900 not all ethnic groups had become nations. There was a strong desire for many of these groups to form their own national states. (The Salvic minorities in the Balkins, the Irish in the British Empire and the Poles in the Russian Empire)
imperialism • Imperialism: The extension of one nations power over other lands. • The need for foreign markets for European economic expansion in the post-Industrial Revolution era (1898-1914) caused colonial rivalries between Britain, France and Germany. The tension became very high between these countries.
militarism • Militarism: Aggressive preparation for war. • Between the years 1890-1914, many European countries introduced Conscription, or a military draft. As a result, European armies had doubled in size. The Russian army was the largest with 1.3 million men. Not far behind was France and Germany (900,000). Britain, Italy and Austria-Hungary also increased the size of there armies (250,000-500,000) respectively.
Alliance System • Alliance System: European countries promising to protect each other in the event of a conflict. • Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed the Triple Alliance in 1882. • France, Great Britain and Russia formed the Triple Entente in 1907.
EXTRA, EXTRA!ARCHDUKE KILLED IN COLD BLOOD! PRINCIP AND BLACK HAND TO BLAME! Sarajavo-Archduke Francios Fredinand and wife Sophie were assassinated here yesterday. Serbian nationalist Gavrillo Princip, a member of the “Black Hand” is said to be responsible for the shooting. The Balkan Powder Keg is ready to explode!
EMPEROR OF A-H SEEKS HELP FROM GERMANY! Vienna-Emperor Francios Joseph of Austria-Hungary asked Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany for assistance in dealing with the “Crisis in the Balkans” The Kaiser assured Joseph that help is on the way!
GERMANY ISSUES AUSTRIA-HUNGARY BLANK CHECK? Brelin-Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany issues a “Blank Check” to Austria-Hungary in response to the murder of the Archduke. Austria-Hungary has free reign to dictate demands to Serbia! Ultimatum expected soon!
ULTIMATUM ISSUED!!! • Serbia to Suppress all anti-Austrian activities! • Serbia to dismiss all anti-Austrian Officials! • Serbia to let Austria-Hungary to sent it’s own officials to investigate the murder!
SERBIA AGREES TO ULTIMATUM? Sarajavo-The Serbian government agreed to 2 of the 3 Austrian demands here yesterday. They will not, however, under any circumstances let A-H conduct their investigation of the murder. They infatically stated that under no circumstances will they compromise their independence movement.
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY TOMOBILIZE! Vienna-In response to the Serbian announcement that they will not let Austria-Hungary investigate the murder of Ferdinand, Emperor Francios Joseph called for a full mobilization of Austrian troops. WAR LOOMS!
RUSSIA LOADING UP! WAR INEVITABLE! Moscow-In response to the Austrian mobilization, Czar Nicholas II ordered Russia’s troops to mobilize. “We will not stand idle as Austria dictates a forced peace to our sister country Serbia…”
AUSTRIA FORMALLY DECLARES WAR ON SERBIA, RUSSIA THREATENS, PEACE OF EUROPE NOW IN KAISER’S HANDS! • Notice sent to the powers of the Opening of Hostilities! • Czar’s forces mass on Eastern border! • France fears a Great War! • Austrian Emperor to take command at Vienna headquarters!
GERMANY DECLARES WAR ON RUSSIA, FIRST SHOTS ARE FIRED; FRANCE IS MOBILIZING AND MAY BE DRAWN IN TOMORROW! • Kaiser signs order mobilizing army “Let Your Harts Beat for God and Your Fists on the Enemy,” Cries Chancellor. • Germany’s War Challenge Delivered to Russia at 7:30 Last Evening Cousins Nicholas II and Wilhelm II unable to work out differences, will do battle in the “European Theater of War”
GERMANY DECALRES WAR ON FRANCE; INVADES BELGIUM! Paris-In it’s boldest move yet, Germany violated Belgium’s neutrality in it’s attack of France. After being denied free passage through Belgium, the Kaiser orders “The Schlieffen Plan” A plan to avoid the heavily fortified Eastern boarder of France and invade through a neutral Belgium. British war declaration expected!
WAR!FIGHTING ON THE EASTERN AND WESTERN FRONTS! ALL OF EUROPE IN SHAMBLES! CASUALTIES BEGIN TO MOUNT AS FIGHTING CONTINUES ON THE WESTERN AND EASTERN FRONTS
BRITAIN FORMALLY DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY!ALL OF EUROPE AT WAR! July 28, 1914.Austria-HungaryDeclares War on Serbia. August 1, 1914. Germany Declares War on Russia. August 3, 1914. Germany Declares War on France August 4, 1914. Britain Declares War on Germany.
FIGHTING ON WESTERN FRONT BOGGED DOWN; BOTH SIDES “DIG” IN FOR LONG WAR OF ATTRITION Paris-With neither side able to deliver a fatal blow, trench warfare promises to keep both sides fighting for many years. The fight for no-man’s land continues without any hope for a quick resolution. Many soldiers ordered to go “over the top” and capture enemy trench, are being mowed down by machine gun fire. Yet the absurd fighting continues.
NEW WEAPONS USED IN HOPES OF GAINING ADVANTAGE Verdun-Many new weapons have been used by both sides in the Great War, with the hopes of gaining some advantage and break the stalemate. Both sides are using machine guns and poisonous gas with great effectiveness. The airplane and zeppelins are proving to be great in locating the enemy.
LUSITANIA SUNK BY SUB; 1,260 DEAD! SINKS IN 15 MIN; WASHINGTON BELIEVES THAT A GRAVE CRISIS AT HAND London-In it’s boldest move to date, German submarines fired upon and sank the British passenger liner Lusitania. 128 Americans presumed to be dead.Wilson monitoring the situation closely.
GERMANY BEGINS RUTHLESS SEA WARFARE; SEEKS ALLIANCE AGAINST U.S.; WILSON CALLES FOR WAR Washington-President Woodrow Wilson asked Congress for a formal declaration of war against Germany. The President called the nation to arms. The Draft bill was singed and soldiers are on their way to France to fight on the Western front. “The world must be made safe for Democracy!”
REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA; CZAR ABDICATES; LENIN AND BOLSHEVIKS SIEZE POWER! Lenin promises “Peace, Land and Bread!” Moscow-Hoping to cause political chaos in Russia, Germany returned exiled leader V.I. Lenin. was to Russia. Lenin and the Bolsheviks promise to take Russia out of the Great War. They promise “peace, land and bread” to the many Russian peasants. Agree to sign Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany removing Russia from the conflict. Treaty cost Russia 25% of land and population.
ARMISTICE SIGNED 11/11, END OF THE WAR! PEACE ACCORD SIGNED IN PARIS! JUNE 28,1919 THE GREAT WAR IS OVER! The Treaty That Ended It All A crowd gathered at the Palace at Versailles to witness the formal end of the Great War.
Total Military Casualties Allies Austria-Hungary1,200,000 Bulgaria 87,500 Germany 1,773,000 Ottoman Empire 325,000 Belgium 14,000 Portugal 7,200 Britain 908,400 Romania 335,700 France 1,385,000 Russia 1,700,000 Greece 5,000 Serbia 48,000 Italy 650,000 United States 116,516 Central Powers Bulgaria 87,500 Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 Germany 1,773,000 Ottoman Empire 325,000