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The Spanish-American War and the Root Reforms. The problem in Cuba. Significant U.S. economic interests in Cuba. Revolution (off and on) in Cuba since 1868 . Resumes in 1895 U.S. interests want stability. 1896: General Valeriano Weyler sent to suppress the rebellion.

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the problem in cuba
The problem in Cuba . . .
  • Significant U.S. economic interests in Cuba.
  • Revolution (off and on) in Cuba since 1868.
    • Resumes in 1895
  • U.S. interests want stability.
  • 1896: General ValerianoWeyler sent to suppress the rebellion.
    • Weyler’smethods were brutal.
    • Reconcentrado policy
the problem in cuba the u s war faction
The problem in Cuba . . . the U.S. “war faction”
  • Humanitarians
  • “Jingoists”
  • Elements of the Republican Party
  • Expansionists

. . . and the “Yellow Press”

slide4

William Randolph Hurst

The New York Journal

Joseph Pulitzer

The New York World

the slide toward war
The slide toward war . . .
  • McKinley was opposed to war.
  • 9 FEB, Hurst publishes “DeLome Letter”

“. . . McKinley is weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party”.

slide8

18 February 1898

USS Maine blows up.

the slide toward war1
The slide toward war . . .
  • 25 February: Roosevelt instructs Navy to attack Philippines in the event of war.
  • 11 April: McKinley calls for intervention in Cuba.
    • Approved 20 April
  • 20 April: Teller Amendment Teller Amendment.
  • 23April: Spain declares war on the U.S.
slide10

1 May 1898

Battle of Manila Bay

slide12

22-24 June

US troops land in Cuba

slide19

Sanford Dole

American businessmen took over Hawaii in 1893.

Queen Lili‘uokalani’

slide20

17 July: Santiago surrenders to General William Shafter

  • 12 August: Spain signs armistice
  • 13 August: US troops capture Manila
costs
Costs . . .
  • $250,000,000
  • 5,462 Americans dead
      • 385 KIA
      • 5,077 of disease
      • 1,604 WIA
results the treaty of paris 1898
Results . . . The Treaty of Paris, 1898
  • Cuba would become independent
      • Temporary American occupation
      • Platt Amendment
  • Spain would assume Cuban debt.
  • U.S. acquires:
      • Puerto Rico
      • Guam
      • Philippines (for $20 million)
election of 1900
Election of 1900
  • Imperialism the major issue.
  • McKinley wins. 295 to 155
  • 6 September, 1901 McKinley shot.
the filipino american war 1898 1902
The Filipino-American War1898-1902(?)
  • Vicious and brutal (both sides).
  • Significant American war crimes.
  • Aguinaldo eventually captured.
  • Taft’s teachers.
  • Roosevelt declares war over 4 July 1902.
  • Americans and Filipinos eventually develop a close relationship.
summary
Summary . . .
  • Spanish-American War makes U.S. an international power.
  • America’s new role accepted by most Americans.
  • The Navy’s performance reinforced the ideas of Mahan.
  • The Army’s performance left much to be desired.
china relief expedition 1900 1901
China Relief Expedition1900-1901
  • Commander, BG Adna Chaffee
  • 9th and 14th Infantry Regiments
  • Detachment, 6th Cavalry
  • Battery F, 5th Artillery
  • Battalion, U.S. Marines
china relief expedition
China Relief Expedition
  • British
  • French
  • Italian
  • Russian
  • German
  • Austrian
  • Japanese

Multinational force,

19,000 troops.

Americans worked with:

the root reforms
The “Root Reforms”
  • Army’s performance in the war with Spain had been poor.
    • Outdated organization; Staff and Line
    • Archiac equipment
    • No real planning capability
  • Elihu Root become Secretary of War, 1899.
    • a corporate lawyer
the root reforms1
The “Root Reforms”
  • Elihu Root become Secretary of War, 1899.
    • a corporate lawyer
the root reforms2
The “Root Reforms”
  • Weapons improvements:
    • 1903 Springfield replaces the Krag
    • Knife bayonet replaces rod bayonet
    • Smokeless powder replaces black powder
    • New 3 in. artillery field piece
    • Experimentation begun with machine guns
    • .45 M1911 Colt pistol replaces the .38 caliber revolver
slide37

Colt

Lewis

Hotchkiss

slide39

Colt M1892

S&W .38 Special

1898

the root reforms3
The “Root Reforms”
  • The General Staff Bill
    • Root reads Upton’s

Military Policy of the United States

    • LTC William Carter helps convince him
    • Congress passes the bill in 1903.
improved education
Improved education . . .
  • Army War College
  • General Staff and service College
  • Service Schools:
    • Artillery
    • Engineer
    • Submarine Defense (mines and torpedeos)
    • Cavalry and Field Artillery
    • Medical Corps
    • Signal Corps
regulars vs the militia
Regulars vs. the Militia
  • Militia Act of 1903, “Dick Act” reforms the militia
    • “Organized Militia” National Guard
    • Reserve Militia
  • Federal $$ made available to National Guard
  • Drills twice a month
  • Annual training
  • Regulars could be detailed to the Guard
  • President could proscribe length of Federal service
  • President could appoint all officers while in Federal Service.
higher echelon organization
Higher Echelon Organization
  • Largest peacetime organization = regiment.
  • 1910, General Staff draws plans for divisional organization.
  • Provisional division formed in 1911.
  • Average strength of the Army 1902-1911 = 75,000
  • Average installation strength = 700
the army continued its non military functions
The Army continued its non-military functions.
  • Provided governmental services in American colonies.
  • Projected American power in “operations other than war.”
    • “Little Wars”
  • Built the Panama Canal