Background • Cuba, 1895: Forces led by Máximo Gómez engage in guerilla warfare against Spanish. • Seek to gain Cuban independence or provoke U.S. intervention.
Spanish Response • Spanish Governor General Valeriano Weyler removes rural population into camps • Thousands die in camps • Provokes humanitarian outcry
U.S. public opinion becomespro-intervention • Reflected various concerns: • Humanitarian • Imperialistic • Economic • Assisted by “yellow journalism” • Particularly re: coverage of the U.S.S. Maine (sinks Feb. 15, 1898)
March 1898: President McKinley demands Cuban independence • Rejected by Spain, April 10. • Congress calls for Cuban independence, Spanish withdrawal, gives McKinley authority to use force. • Spain declares war April 23; U.S., April 25.
U.S. plans: Assumed war would be primarily a naval conflict • U.S. Navy • Would destroy Spanish naval forces • Bombard cities or blockade territories • Army • Would man coastal defenses • Small forces would be sent to assist Cuban rebels • Primary focus: Cuba
Naval mobilization goes smoothly • Naval War College had previously developed plan for a war with Spain. • Ships deployed into 5 squadrons: • Asiatic – George Dewey • North Atlantic – William T. Sampson • “Flying” Squadron – Winfield Scott Schley
Meanwhile, in the Atlantic… • In late April, Spain sends a squadron under Adm. Pascual de Cervera across the Atlantic
Sampson’s squadron goes to Puerto Rico • But Cervera learns of the fleet’s destination, heads to Santiago, Cuba instead. • Sampson blockades Santiago, but too dangerous to send his fleet into the harbor.
The Army: Manpower • Legislation passed in April 1898: • Allowed McKinley to call up state Guardsmen to serve as volunteers. • Enlarged the regular army to 67,000 men. • Provided for formation of some federal volunteer units.
Volunteer call-up results in chaos • McKinley calls out 125,000 Guardsmen in April, and another 75,000 in May. • Army bureaucracy geared toward needs of peacetime establishment (about 25,000 men) • Guardsmen arrive at camps not adequately trained or equipped.
Mission to Cuba • William R. Shafter appointed to command of 5th Corps, assembling in Tampa, FL. • Original assignment modest, changed and ultimately sent to Santiago.
Logistical disorder in Tampa • Transportation bottlenecks • Poor record-keeping • Too few staff officers
Most famous combatant at San Juan Hill: Teddy Roosevelt
Battle of Santiago: Aftermath • Cervera’s fleet destroyed in escape attempt, July 3. • Shafter demands surrender of Santiago. • Leads to capitulation of commander of Spanish forces in eastern Cuba, July 17 • Puerto Rico invaded, July 25. • Peace protocol signed, August 12.
Additional considerations • Spanish leadership poor • Role of Cuban guerillas • Disease: • ravages 5th Corps in Cuba • breaks out in volunteer camps in U.S.
Meanwhile, back in the Philippines… • Emilio Aguinaldo returns to organize resistance to Spanish rule. • Declares independence. • Establishes a republic. • Besieges Manila with an army.
The “Battle” of Manila, August 13 • U.S. forces capture the city • Battle designed to: • Save face for the Spanish • Keep city out of hands of indigenous Filipino army • Word of peace protocol arrives just after the battle.
Treaty of Paris, Dec. 10, 1898 • Spanish granted Cuba independence, withdrew from the Island. • Spain ceded Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the U.S. • Annexation of Philippines sparks outcry in U.S. (and costs $20)