The Spanish-American War Viva Cuba Libre!
Cuba Libre! • U.S. had its eye on Cuba and its resources in the 1800s. • They tried to buy it in 1854 for expanded plantations • 1886 - slavery was abolished in Cuba. • U.S. invests in Cuban plantations. In 1895, Jose Marti launched a revolution in Cuba against Spanish rule Rebels destroyed property to evoke U.S. interest.
Concentration Camps • Under harsh rule of Valeriano Weyler “The Butcher” • Spain responded by rounding up rebels in concentration camps. • 300,000 people suffered starvation and abuse.
De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, SpanishAmbassador to the U.S. Criticized PresidentMcKinley as weak Result?
Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy Criticized PresidentMcKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair! Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.
“Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism Joseph Pulitzer Hearst to Frederick Remington:You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war! William Randolph Hearst
THE U.S.S. MAINE EXPLODES • The Maine was sent to Cuba to retrieve U.S. citizens. • The Maine exploded, killing over 260.
Remember the Maineand to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
It’s On Now! Congress approved McKinley’s request for declaration of war.
The Spanish-American War (1898):“That Splendid Little War” We attacked where?
Surprise! • The U.S. attacked the Spanish Navy in the Philippines on May 1st. • The Philippines were “liberated” by August.
The “Rough Riders” Charge up San Juan Hill
Treaty of Paris 1898 Philippines Guam Puerto Rico
Emilio Aguinaldo Leader of the FilipinoUprising. July 4, 1946:Philippine independence
In the Philippine-American War (1899-1902) 70,000 U.S. soldiers fought - 4,000 died, and as many as 600,000 Filipinos were killed.
William H. Taft, 1stGov.-General of the Philippines Great administrator.
The American Anti-Imperialist League Founded in 1899. Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, and WilliamJennings Bryan amongthe leaders. Campaigned against the annexation of thePhilippines and otheracts of imperialism.
Cuban Independence? Teller Amendment (1898) Platt Amendment (1903) • Cuba could not make treaties without US approval • The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. • Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. • Cuba must not go into significant debt. Senator Orville Platt
DILEMMA--Did U. S. citizenship follow the flag??
Puerto Rico: 1898 • 1900 - Foraker Act. • PR became an “unincorporated territory.” • Citizens of PR, not of the US. • Import duties on PR goods • 1901-1903 the Insular Cases. • Constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions.
Stereotypes of the Chinese Immigrant Oriental [Chinese] Exclusion Act, 1882
The Boxer Rebellion: 1900 The Peaceful Harmonious Fists. “55 Days at Peking.”
The Open Door Policy Secretary John Hay. Give all nations equalaccess to trade in China. Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power.