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    1. Leadership How and why does someone become a leader?

    2. Theories of Leadership Trait theory: Belief that leadership is derived from genetic superiority. Aristotle From the moment of their birth, some are marked for subjugation and other for command. Most frequently believed by: royalty, members of elite social classes, older siblings, and early maturers. Associated with a belief in Social Darwinism

    3. Trait Theory Decades of research provides little support. Bird found four traits associated with leaders. Intelligence, initiative, sense of humor, extraversion. But, these traits alone dont guarantee a leader.

    4. Problems with using traits to identify leaders An unlimited # of traits may be identified. Different traits may be needed in different situations. Great leaders are frequently identified after the fact. Biased focus on viewing men as great leaders.

    5. Machiavellianism Belief that people are: Weak, gullible, and untrustworthy Others are impersonal objects One should manipulate others whenever possible to achieve goals Have the following traits Little emotional involvement in relationships Not concerned with morality No strong ideological ties Not grossly pathological

    6. Social Determinism Also known as zeitgeist theory The idea that certain characteristics predispose one to be a leader in certain situations or when the time is right.

    7. Leadership Styles Autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire Tons of research comparing three styles. Only clear findings show that regardless of style a good leader initiates structure by: Clearly defining role as leader Clearly defining what is expected of group members Leads to group productivity, cohesion, and satisfaction.

    8. Situational Theories of Leadership Answer becomes clear that different styles of leadership are useful in different situations and with different people. Numerous theories that make the same basic claim leaderships is a balance of task and relationship related actions. Appropriate actions hinge upon the maturity and commitment level of the group.

    9. Situational Theories: Example Directing: For new group members. Leader does decision making, little relationship support. Coaching: High directive and supportive behavior. As initial enthusiasm flags, emotional support is needed. Supporting: Low directive, high supportive. Delegating: Low directive and low supportive. Result of high competence and commitment of group members.

    10. Role Position Theory Perhaps those placed in positions of leadership become leaders. Research on authority figures supports this to some extent (e.g., Milgram, Zimbardo). Authority=legitimate power vested in a particular position. Problems with theory Why are people appointed to these positions initially? Doesnt explain reciprocal power relationships. Does not account for outside influences on subordinates.