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Employment and Trade Unions. Employment and Trade Unions. 1851 3 million women employed - 42% of workforce 80% of women workers in domestic service, clothing trades and textile industry They ‘lived in’, worked long hours for poor pay Earned half a mans salary for doing the same job

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employment and trade unions1
Employment and Trade Unions
  • 1851 3 million women employed - 42% of workforce
  • 80% of women workers in domestic service, clothing trades and textile industry
  • They ‘lived in’, worked long hours for poor pay
  • Earned half a mans salary for doing the same job
  • http://www.ourwardfamily.com/victorian_servants.htm
employment and trade unions2

Telegraph Exchange 1871

Employment and Trade Unions
  • Technology led to 97% of women in office work
  • Women however had to give up their job when they were married
employment and trade unions3
Employment and Trade Unions
  • Women worked through the TU’s to improve their conditions
  • Although numbers did not increase until after 1870s due to opposition from men
  • Men believed they were entitled to the higher wage as they were the ‘bread winner’
employment and trade unions4
Employment and Trade Unions
  • Increase membership from 21,085 in 1877 to 437,000 in 1914
  • Why?
  • Strong membership in Lancashire cotton unions but excluded from general TU’s until mid century
  • 1875 attended the TUC
trade unions
Trade Unions
  • 1893 first women factory inspector
  • Although TUs failed to make an impact on domestic service were 1.5 million were working
  • However by outbreak of war women had achieved improvements but still lagged behind
activity
Activity
  • Describe the main cause, the events and the outcome of the Match Girls’ strike in 1889
  • In what ways could the strike and its outcome be described as ‘a landmark victory for women’s rights?
lack of education
Lack of education
  • Little chance of education for working class women
  • Role was either in the factory or at home
  • They were to be content and behave themselves!
middle class
Middle class
  • Most were educated by a governess who taught them how to read, knit, sew play the piano and paint
  • The girls were educated to be good wives and mothers
  • male educationalists believed that the stress of education could damage the health of a young girl instead they needed rest
change in education
Change in education
  • 1848 Queens college in London was founded as a training college for women teachers,
  • set new standards of education in girls schools
taunton commission in 1868
Taunton Commission in 1868
  • Set up to enquire into the education of boys, included girls schools at last minute due to Emily Davis
  • Found a deficiency in girls education, solely on domestic duties and ‘accomplishments’
  • Some good schools e.g. academic schools such as Cheltenham Ladies college founded by early feminist pioneers.
  • However in the minority
debate over the nature of reform
Debate over the nature of reform
  • 1st school of thought: make education for girls as good as but different from boys
  • 2nd school of thought: girl’s education should be identical to boys
  • All agreed an increase in number of good schools for girls
emily davis
Emily Davis
  • Campaigned to gain women the right to university
  • Opened a school for women in 1869 later known as Girton college
  • Followed by Newnham Hall by Jemima Clough
summary
Summary
  • Oxford University and 4 in Scotland enrolled women in 1879
  • By turn of century more middle class women going into higher education and into professions
  • By end of Victorian era there is no doubt that the causes of women’s rights had made significant progress but they still had no voting rights