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Lecture 6 English morphology-5. Lecture content. Adverbs Identifying the adverbs Adverb classification Use adverbs correctly Numerals Cardinals, ordinals and fractions Numbers in use Past continuous tense - Declarative or statement - Interrogative or question - Negative.

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lecture 6 english morphology 5
Lecture 6

English morphology-5

lecture content
Lecture content
  • Adverbs
  • Identifying the adverbs
  • Adverb classification
  • Use adverbs correctly
  • Numerals
  • Cardinals, ordinals and fractions
  • Numbers in use
  • Past continuous tense

- Declarative or statement

- Interrogative or question

- Negative

adverbs
Adverbs

An adverb modifies a verb or sometimes another modifier (adjective or adverb). For example;

The horse ran swiftly.[modifying a verb, ran]

The horse was very swift. [modifying an adjective, swift]

The horse ran very swiftly.[modifying an adverb, swiftly]

Many adverbs are formed by addition of –ly to adjectives;

smooth smoothly

quick quickly

serious seriously

careful carefully

heavy heavily

An –ly ending thus usually signals an adverb but not always, for friendly, lovely, elderly, lonely, silly, lively, womanly, and saintly are adjectives.

adverbs1
Adverbs

A few common adverbs have the same form as their corresponding adjectives;

late, early, fast

Some adverbs have two forms;

slow(ly) quick(ly)

You drive too fast. [drive how? fast-adverb]

You are in the fast lane. [which lane? fast-adjective]

The sure way to tell an adjective from an adverb is to determine the word that it modifies.

The word not is an adverb.

use adverbs correctly
Use adverbs correctly

Tom is a careful driver. Tom drives carefully.

Please be quiet. Please speak quietly

Jack is a very fast runner. Jack can run very fast.

He tried hard to find a job but he had no luck.

I’m not surprised he didn’t find a job. He hardly tried to find a job.

It was a hard work for him.

The train was late. I got up late this morning.

Your English is good. You speak English well.

I’d love to have a lovely girlfriend.

A friend of mine is very lively. He always smiles.

Maria learns languages incredibly quickly.

The examination was surprisingly easy.

use adverbs correctly1
Use adverbs correctly

Most adjectives and adverbs have three degrees. Making degrees are usually the same formally.

Positive (modifying one thing or action); hard

My bed is hard.

Comparative (comparing two); harder

Your bed is harder.

Superlative (comparing three or more); hardest

His bed is hardest.

I speak English well.

Bold speaks English better than I do.

But Baigalia speaks English the best among us.

numerals1
Numerals

Decimal fraction;

0.1 - zero point one

0.045 - zero point zero four five

15.8 - fifteen point eight

Common fraction;

1/2 - one half (a half)

1/3 - one third (a third)

1/4 - one fourth (a quarter)

3/5 - three fifths

2/3 - two thirds

3/4 - three quarters (three fourths)

3.5/8 - three and five eighths

numbers in use
Numbers in use
  • Generally, write out a number in words when

a. It will take only one or two words: forty bushels, thirty-nine steps, two hundred spectators, thirty-third floor.

b. The number is part of a compound adjective: an eight-hour day, a five-year-old girl, a six-room house.

c. The number is a fraction unaccompanied by a whole number: one-fourth of your pay, two-fifths of a mile.

d. The number begins a sentence: Three hundred fifty copies were all that the book sold. The book sold only 2,876 copies. [If the number is a long one, rewrite the sentence to place the number elsewhere.]

numbers in use1
Numbers in use
  • Use figures for

a. Any number that would be three or more words when written out:

This dormitory houses 438 students.

Use commas to separate every set of three digits (except in serial and telephone numbers, addresses, years in dates, and page numbers). Count from the right or the decimal point:

2,876 copies $1,345,009.59

1066 A.D 1456 East Drive

Write very large round numbers as follows:

two million, 23 million, 4.2 trillion

b. Groups of numbers in the same passage (do not mix words and figures):

Vote totals by precinct were 135, 78, 10, and 23.

numbers in use2
Numbers in use
  • Use figures for

c. Dates; addresses, room numbers; telephone numbers, chapter, page, and line numbers, serial numbers, decimals and percentages; route numbers; times; statistics; and precise measurements:

March 20, 1931 117 Bly Road Room 114

224-8575 Chapter 4 998-47-3373

32.7 95 percent Route 6

3.30 P.M 92 for;37 against 6 by 3.2 inches [but six feet long]

d. Write amounts of money as follows:

I earn sixty-five dollars a week. I earn $65.0 a week.

I won $40, $30, and $5 at the races.

I won a million dollars. She won $5million.

She won $9,999.546.

past continuous tense
Past continuous tense

We use the past continuous to say that somebody was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this time but had not finished.

Key words:

  • This time, while

This time last year I was living in UB.

What were you doing at 10 o’clock last night?

I waved to her but she wasn’t looking.

past continuous tense1
Past continuous tense
  • Statement

SubjectVerb

I, He, she, it was

You, we, they wereverb+ing

  • Question

was I, he, she, it

were you, we, they verb+ing?

  • Negative

I, He, she, it wasn’t

You, we, they weren’tverb+ing

past continuous tense2
Past continuous tense

a. What were you doing at 7 P.M yesterday evening?

Yesterday evening at 7 P.M I wasdoing my homework.

b. Were you living in China this time last year?

No, I wasn’t.

I wasliving in Russia this time last year.

c. Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking the dinner.

While I was working in the garden, I hurt my back.