Lecture 6 English morphology-5. Lecture content. Adverbs Identifying the adverbs Adverb classification Use adverbs correctly Numerals Cardinals, ordinals and fractions Numbers in use Past continuous tense - Declarative or statement - Interrogative or question - Negative.
- Declarative or statement
- Interrogative or question
An adverb modifies a verb or sometimes another modifier (adjective or adverb). For example;
The horse ran swiftly.[modifying a verb, ran]
The horse was very swift. [modifying an adjective, swift]
The horse ran very swiftly.[modifying an adverb, swiftly]
Many adverbs are formed by addition of –ly to adjectives;
An –ly ending thus usually signals an adverb but not always, for friendly, lovely, elderly, lonely, silly, lively, womanly, and saintly are adjectives.
A few common adverbs have the same form as their corresponding adjectives;
late, early, fast
Some adverbs have two forms;
You drive too fast. [drive how? fast-adverb]
You are in the fast lane. [which lane? fast-adjective]
The sure way to tell an adjective from an adverb is to determine the word that it modifies.
The word not is an adverb.
Tom is a careful driver. Tom drives carefully.
Please be quiet. Please speak quietly
Jack is a very fast runner. Jack can run very fast.
He tried hard to find a job but he had no luck.
I’m not surprised he didn’t find a job. He hardly tried to find a job.
It was a hard work for him.
The train was late. I got up late this morning.
Your English is good. You speak English well.
I’d love to have a lovely girlfriend.
A friend of mine is very lively. He always smiles.
Maria learns languages incredibly quickly.
The examination was surprisingly easy.
Most adjectives and adverbs have three degrees. Making degrees are usually the same formally.
Positive (modifying one thing or action); hard
My bed is hard.
Comparative (comparing two); harder
Your bed is harder.
Superlative (comparing three or more); hardest
His bed is hardest.
I speak English well.
Bold speaks English better than I do.
But Baigalia speaks English the best among us.
0.1 - zero point one
0.045 - zero point zero four five
15.8 - fifteen point eight
1/2 - one half (a half)
1/3 - one third (a third)
1/4 - one fourth (a quarter)
3/5 - three fifths
2/3 - two thirds
3/4 - three quarters (three fourths)
3.5/8 - three and five eighths
a. It will take only one or two words: forty bushels, thirty-nine steps, two hundred spectators, thirty-third floor.
b. The number is part of a compound adjective: an eight-hour day, a five-year-old girl, a six-room house.
c. The number is a fraction unaccompanied by a whole number: one-fourth of your pay, two-fifths of a mile.
d. The number begins a sentence: Three hundred fifty copies were all that the book sold. The book sold only 2,876 copies. [If the number is a long one, rewrite the sentence to place the number elsewhere.]
a. Any number that would be three or more words when written out:
This dormitory houses 438 students.
Use commas to separate every set of three digits (except in serial and telephone numbers, addresses, years in dates, and page numbers). Count from the right or the decimal point:
2,876 copies $1,345,009.59
1066 A.D 1456 East Drive
Write very large round numbers as follows:
two million, 23 million, 4.2 trillion
b. Groups of numbers in the same passage (do not mix words and figures):
Vote totals by precinct were 135, 78, 10, and 23.
c. Dates; addresses, room numbers; telephone numbers, chapter, page, and line numbers, serial numbers, decimals and percentages; route numbers; times; statistics; and precise measurements:
March 20, 1931 117 Bly Road Room 114
224-8575 Chapter 4 998-47-3373
32.7 95 percent Route 6
3.30 P.M 92 for;37 against 6 by 3.2 inches [but six feet long]
d. Write amounts of money as follows:
I earn sixty-five dollars a week. I earn $65.0 a week.
I won $40, $30, and $5 at the races.
I won a million dollars. She won $5million.
She won $9,999.546.
We use the past continuous to say that somebody was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this time but had not finished.
This time last year I was living in UB.
What were you doing at 10 o’clock last night?
I waved to her but she wasn’t looking.
I, He, she, it was
You, we, they wereverb+ing
was I, he, she, it
were you, we, they verb+ing?
I, He, she, it wasn’t
You, we, they weren’tverb+ing
a. What were you doing at 7 P.M yesterday evening?
Yesterday evening at 7 P.M I wasdoing my homework.
b. Were you living in China this time last year?
No, I wasn’t.
I wasliving in Russia this time last year.
c. Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking the dinner.
While I was working in the garden, I hurt my back.