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3. Laboratory Automation. Objectives Level I. List four advantages of automated chemical analysis. Define the following terms: throughput, test menu, carryover, discrete testing, random-access testing, open-reagent analyzer, and closed-reagent analyzer.

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Laboratory Automation

objectives level i
Objectives Level I
  • List four advantages of automated chemical analysis.
  • Define the following terms: throughput, test menu, carryover, discrete testing, random-access testing, open-reagent analyzer, and closed-reagent analyzer.
  • Identify five laboratory tasks associated with the preanalytical stages of laboratory testing.
objectives level i1
Objectives Level I
  • Identify three reasons why automation is necessary.
  • Give examples of how automated analyzers perform the following functions:
    • Mixing
    • Incubating
    • Transferring reagents
objectives level i2
Objectives Level I
  • List four tasks associated with the analytical stage of laboratory testing.
  • Identify five demands placed on the laboratory that serve to drive automation.
  • List three techniques used to mix samples and reagents in an automated system.
  • Identify three techniques used to incubate samples and reagents.
objectives level i3
Objectives Level I
  • List three drawbacks of total laboratory automation.
  • Identify three tasks associated with the post-analytical stage of laboratory testing.
objectives level ii
Objectives Level II
  • Explain the concept of total laboratory automation.
  • Distinguish the three stages of laboratory testing from one another.
  • Differentiate between proportioning reagent by volumetric addition and by continuous flow.
  • Explain the operating principle of a Peltier thermal electric module.
objectives level ii1
Objectives Level II
  • Distinguish between workstation and work cell.
  • Explain the principle used for clot detection in automated analyzers.
three stages of testing
Three Stages of Testing
  • Preanalytical
  • Analytical
  • Postanalytical
preanalytical stage
Preanalytical Stage
  • Methods to transport specimens
    • Human carriers or runners
    • Pneumatic tube delivery systems
    • Electric-track-driven vehicles
    • Mobile robots
    • Conveyors and/or track systems
specific tasks performed by automated sample processors
Specific Tasks Performed by Automated Sample Processors
  • Presorting of samples
  • Centrifugation
  • Sufficient sample volume check
  • Detection of the presence of clots in the samples
specific tasks performed by automated sample processors1
Specific Tasks Performed by Automated Sample Processors
  • Removal of tube stoppers (decapping)
  • Secondary tube labeling
  • Aliquotting of samples
  • Destination sorting into analyzer racks
tasks performed in analytical stage of testing
Tasks Performed in Analytical Stage of Testing
  • Sample introduction
  • Dispense reagents:
    • Open-reagent system
    • Closed-reagent system
  • Mixing
  • Incubation
  • Detection
postanalytical stage of testing
Postanalytical Stage of Testing
  • Signal processing
  • Data processing by computers includes:
    • Data acquisition
    • Calculations
    • Monitoring and displaying data
automated system designs
Automated System Designs
  • Total laboratory automated systems (TLAs)
  • Integrated modular systems
  • Workstations
  • Work cells
    • Figures 3-2 and 3-3
  • Fully integrated systems
put it all together
Put It All Together

Figure 3-4 Roche Modular Analytics Serum Work Area. Courtesy of Roche Diagnostics

future trends
Future Trends
  • Intelligent Laboratory Systems
molecular diagnostics analyzers
Molecular Diagnostics Analyzers
  • Automated bench top analyzer for amplification and detection of PCR testing.
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Figure 3-6 Roche COBAS Amplicor Analyzer Automated Real-Time PCR System. Courtesy of Roche Diagnostics