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Industrial Automation Automation Industrielle Industrielle Automation. 1.1 Automation Overview automación - vista general Automation -vue d'ensemble Automation - Übersicht. Definition. Automation ( automation , Automation ) :
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Industrial Automation Automation IndustrielleIndustrielle Automation 1.1 Automation Overviewautomación - vista generalAutomation -vue d'ensembleAutomation - Übersicht
Definition • Automation (automation, Automation): • set of all measures aiming at replacing human work through machines(e.g. automation is applied science) • the technology used for this purpose(e.g. this company has an automation department) • Automation (automatisation, Automatisierung) • replacement of human work through machines(e.g. the automatisation of the textile factory caused uproar of the workers) • replacement of conscious activity by reflexes(e.g. drill of the sailors allows the automatisation of ship handling) automation and automatisation are often confounded, in English, it is the same word. (they are related like electricity and electrification)
Automation and living beings Automation =the neural system Society Enterprise Trends & History = Brain Display and react = Cortex Communication networks = neural, spine controller = ganglions Sensors & Actors = Sense cells & muscles physical plant = skeleton
Automation as a hierarchy of services 5 administration Planning, Statistics, Finances 4 enterprise Production planning, orders, purchase 3 Workflow, order tracking, resources (manufacturing) execution SCADA = Supervisory 2 Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Group control Unit control 1 Field Sensors T A V & actors 0 Primary technology
Automation as a computer network Internet DB, Historians, Optimizers, MES Operator Workplaces Plant Network OPC Server OPC Server OPC Server Control Network IEC 61850 station bus Controller Protection & Control Fieldbus Profinet Hart HART mux Instruments ProcessInstrumentation Power Management Substation Automation LV Electrification Power generation
Technical necessity of automation • Processing of the information flow • Enforcement of safety and availability • Reduction of labor costs
Expectations Process Optimisation • Energy, material and time savings• Quality improvement and stabilisation • Reduction of waste, pollution control • Compliance with regulations and laws, product tracking• Increase availability, safety • Fast response to market • Connection to management and accounting (SAP™) -> Acquisition of large number of “process variables”, data mining Personnel costs reduction • Simplify interface• Assist decision• Require data processing, displays, data base, expert systems -> Human-Machine-Interface (HMI) Asset Optimisation (gestion des moyens de production) • Automation of engineering, commissioning and maintenance • Software configuration, back-up and versioning• Life-cycle control • Maintenance support -> Engineering Tools
Data quantity in plants Power Plant 30 years ago 100 measurement and action variables (called "points") analog controllers, analog instruments one central "process controller" for data monitoring and protocol. Coal-fired power plant today 10'000 points, comprising 8'000 binary and analog measurement points and 2'000 actuation point 1'000 micro-controllers and logic controllers Nuclear Power Plant three times more points than in conventional power plants Electricity distribution network 100’000 - 10’000’000 points information flow to the operators: ~ 5 kbit/s. human processing capacity: about 25 bit/s without computers, 200 engineers (today: 3) Data reduction and processing is necessary to operate plants
Contents • 1 Introduction • 1.1 Automation and its importance • 1.2 Examples of automated processes • 1.3 Types of plants and controls • 1.3.1 Open loop and closed loop control • 1.3.2 Continuous processes • 1.3.3 Discrete processes • 1.3.3 Mixed processes • 1.4 Automation hierarchy • 1.5 Control System Architecture
Plant Automation All automation systems share a common structure They differ in the type of plant controlled, quantity of information, geographical distribution
Automation Systems - World Players Largest Company Based Major mergers ABB CH-SE Brown Boveri, ASEA, CE, Alfa-Laval, Elsag-Bailey Alstom-Schneider-Areva FR-GB Alsthom, GEC, CEGELEC, Telemécanique,.. Emerson US Fisher, Rosemount General Electric US Hitachi - Yokogawa JP Honeywell US Rockwell Automation US Allen Bradley, Rockwell,.. Invensys UK Foxboro, Siebe, BTR, Triconex, Wonderware… Siemens DE Plessey, Landis & Gyr, Stäfa Controls, Cerberus,.. € 80 Mia / year business (depends on viewpoint), growing 5 % annually
Terms plant: the object of automation F: site, usine, centrale (électricité) D: Prozess, Werk, Fabrik, Kraftwerk E: planta, fabrica, instalación general contractor: organizes the suppliers of the different components. turnkey factory: the client only hires consultants to supervise the contractor increasingly, the general contractor has to pay itself by operating the plant. increasingly, the suppliers are paid on results….
Four distinct businesses primary technology (mechanical, electrical) automation equipment (control & command) engineering & commissioning maintenance& disposal offered by different companies
Life-phases of a Plant (Example: Rail Vehicle) Manufacturers Equipment Design (développement, Entwicklung) control air conditioning brakes Equipment Production (production, Herstellung) car body design by assembler Assembler (ensemblier) Engineering (bureau d’étude, Projektierung) Sleeping Wagon XL5000 Commissioning (mise en service, Inbetriebnahme) Start on service Client, Service brakes Maintenance (entretien, Unterhalt) replacement brakes Out of service Recycling (Recyclage, Wiederverwertung)
Research and Development The components and tools are developped
Design From the customer’s requirement specs to the system design
Factory Acceptance Test The client verifies that the system is ready
Commissioning on site hard work …