unit 1 research reports for business and thecnical writing by wayne losano n.
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  2. I. Warm-up activities • 1. Did you do some research of any kind? What comes to your mind at the sight of RESEARCH? • 2. Tell us what you know about research. • 3. Will you choose to be a researcher in the future? If yes, what are you going to study?

  3. 4. Go over the whole text, then answer the following two questions. • 1) List the elements of a research paper. • 2) What are the primary goals of professional communication?

  4. II. New words • presentation n. the act of presenting; a talk, usu. to a group of people 提出,呈递;介绍,报告 a presentation day大学学位授予日presentation of credentials递交国书 The presentation of foods is designed to stimulate your appetite.展出食物的目的在于引起你的食欲。 My pupils presented me with some flowers.学生们送我一些花。

  5. client n. a person who gets help or advice from a professional, e.g. a lawyer, an accountant, an architect, etc.; a person who buys goods or services 委托人,当事人,顾客 She can't come to the telephone; she's serving a client.她不能来接电话, 她正在接待一位顾客。

  6. obstacle • The major obstacle to achieving that goal is money.达到那个目标的主要障碍就是钱。 • Lack of childcare provision can be a major obstacle for women wishing to work. 儿童保育服务不足对希望上班的妇女来说是一个大障碍。 • obstacle race障碍赛 • throw obstacles in sb.‘s way妨害, 阻碍某人 • an obstacle in the path/way (of sb/sth)…道路上的障碍 The release of prisoners remains an obstacle in the path of a peace agreement. 犯人的释放问题仍然是和谈道路上的一个障碍。

  7. 参考词汇 • [同义词] obstacle; impediment; obstruction; hindrance都含“阻碍”、“障碍物”的意思。 obstacle指“阻碍前进的东西或状况”, 如:Her father's opposition remained only their obstacle.她父亲的反对是他们唯一的障碍。 impediment指“妨碍正常活动而使前进受阻的事”, 特指“口吃”, 如:a speech impediment口吃。 obstruction指“阻碍整个通道的阻塞物”, 如:Your interference is an obstruction of justice.你的干预阻碍了正义。hindrance指“阻碍事物前进的人或物”, 如: lt was proved a hindrance to our progress. 已证明它是我们前进的障碍。

  8. marketing n. the branch of business concerned with advertising, publicity, etc. 营销 • Does good marketing mean playing safe (= avoiding risks) and staying traditional? 成功的营销就是四平八稳、沿袭传统吗? • sales and marketing 销售与推广

  9. economics n. (1)经济学(2)the condition of a region or group as regards material prosperity经济情况He is responsible for the island's modest economics.他对该岛不繁荣的经济状况负有责任。 • accounting n. the art, practice or system of keeping, analyzing and interpreting business accounts 会计学 There was no love lost between the sales and the accounting departments.销售部门与财务部门之间关系很坏。 A job fell vacant in the accounting department.财会部出现了一个空缺。 We offer accounting as a subsidiary course.我们开设会计课,作为副修课程。

  10. anthropology n. the scientific study of man, including his physical characteristics, the origin and development of races, and the cultures, customs and beliefs of mankind 人类学 Social anthropology examines family relationships in detail.社会人类学深入探讨家庭关系。 anthropologist

  11. data n. facts; information data 为 datum 的复数 The data is [are] all ready for examination. • intend vt. have in mind as a goal; plan The company intends to cut about 4,500 jobs. 公司打算裁员 4,500人左右。 Pigs intended for human consumption. 专给人类食用的猪。

  12. significance n. importance; meaning Adolescent education was felt to be a social issue of some significance.青少年教育问题被认为是比较重要的社会问题。 The significance of what was happening was clearer to me than to her. 我比她更了解所发生一切的意义。

  13. consumption n. the act of consuming or an amount consumed 消费(量) Industrialized countries should reduce their energy consumption.工业化国家应该减少能源消耗。 a daily consumption of 15 cigarettes 每天抽掉15支烟。 • relevance n. importance or significance to the matter at hand Her ideas have lost all relevance to the modern world.她的想法与现代社会完全脱节。

  14. segment n. a part into which a whole is or can be divided; section ■(Phonetics) the smallest distinct part of a spoken utterance, especially with regard to vowel and consonant sounds rather than stress or intonation(语音学)(元音、辅音的)切分成分 • regulation n. a law or a set of rules by which sth. is regulated regulation army footwear 正规的军用鞋 the regulation of financial markets 对金融市场的管理 The regulation has no application to this particular case.那项规则不适用于这一特定情况。

  15. investigate v. examine carefully in a search for facts, knowledge, or information Police are today investigating a claim that the man was beaten unconscious by a gang. 警方今天正在调查歹徒团伙伤人致昏的案件。 He has been investigated and found blameless.他已被调查, 发现并无罪过。 • summary n. a short statement of the main points of a report, etc. • in summary: in short 简要地说 e.g., In summary, there is no clear case for one tax system compared to another.简要地说,并没有明确理据说一种税制优于另一种税制。

  16. assessment n. the act of calculating or deciding the value or amount; the value or amount at which sth. is calculated the assessment of educational needs 评估 assessments of market value 市场价值评估 • rhetorical a. in using a style designed to impress or persuade 修辞(学)的 Repetition is a common rhetorical device.重复是一种常见的修辞手段。 the rhetorical commitment of the government to give priority to primary education 政府满口答应优先考虑初等教育

  17. enhance vt. make greater; improve 增加,提高 His refusal does nothing to enhance his reputation.他的回绝无助于提高他的声誉。 • description n. the act of describing sth.; an account in words describing sth. People who had seen him were able to give a description.见过他的人都能形容出他的模样来。 His face was swollen beyond description. 他的脸肿得无法形容。

  18. evaluate vt. judge the value of The study will assist in evaluating the impact of recent changes. 这项研究将有助于评价近来发生的变化所产生的影响。A system for evaluating how well the firm is performing.公司运营状况评估系统。 • stroke n. a single complete movement that is repeated often, as in swimming He received three strokes of the cane.他挨了三记藤鞭。 He won by two strokes.他以两杆获胜。(golf) Front crawl is a popular stroke.自由泳是一种流行的游泳姿势。

  19. overall a. including everything; containing all the overall effect is impressive 总体效果令人印象深刻 an overall cut of 30 per cent 总计减少30% • duplicate vt. make an exact copy of A duplicate licence is issued to replace a valid licence which has been lost.签发了一本执照的副本以代替已丢失但仍有效的那本。 a duplicate application form 一式两份的申请表 locksmiths can make duplicates of most keys 锁匠大部分钥匙都能配

  20. tendency n. an inclination to think or behave in a certain way For students, there is a tendency to socialize in the evenings.晚上学生们倾向于聚在一起。 criminal tendencies 犯罪倾向 The dominant tendency in the party remained right-wing.党内占主导地位的依旧是右翼势力。 • hypothesis n. idea or suggestion put forward as a staring point for reasoning or explanation 假设 We have proved the hypothesis.我们已经证明了这种假设。 The theory is based on the hypothesis that all men are born equal.这个理论基于人人平等的前提。

  21. antithetical a. opposite to and unable to exist together with 对立(面)的 people whose religious beliefs are antithetical to mine 其宗教信仰和我的宗教信仰互相对立的人 • validity n. 正确(性);合法(性),有效 The tests have been shown to be of dubious validity.这些试验的有效性已显得令人怀疑。 a valid criticism.站得住脚的批评

  22. guideline n. (pl.) informal rules or instruction on how sth. should be done We laid out the economic guidelines and followed it.我们制定了经济方针并且遵循它。 The organization has issued a set of guidelines for builders to follow. 该组织为营造商制订了一套指导方针。 • approve v. have a favorable opinion (of); give permission or consent (to) The budget was approved by parliament预算被议会批准了 places on approved courses.已经批准的线路上的一些地方。 The firm's directors quickly approved the new idea.公司的董事们很快赞同了这个想法。

  23. skilled a. having skill; requiring training and skill a lab technician skilled in electronics一位专长电子学的实验室技师 skilled draughtsmen专业制图员 a highly skilled job一项高度技术性的工作 • personnel n. all the people who work for a company or organization Many of the personnel involved require training.有关的许多员工需要培训。 sales personnel销售人员

  24. applicable a. that can be applied (to) The same considerations are equally applicable to accident claims.同样的考虑也一样适用于事故索赔之中。 an applicable rule切实可行的规则applicable to all cases适合于一切场合 • formal a. (of words or style of writing or speaking) suitable for official occasions, serious writing, etc. a formal dinner party 正式宴会 a formal complaint 正式申诉 I don't know enough about art to appreciate the purely formal qualities.我对艺术懂得不多,不会欣赏纯形式上的艺术特性。

  25. pleasing a. likable; giving delight or enjoyment a design which is pleasing to the eye 悦目的图案 a very well mannered and pleasing young man 彬彬有礼而令人喜爱的年轻人 • ensure vt. make sure or certain; guarantee The client must ensure that accurate records are kept.客户必须确保有准确的记录。 I will ensure that the car arrives by six o'clock. 我保证汽车六点钟以前到。

  26. eliminate vt. get rid of; remove a policy that would eliminate inflation 一项消除通货膨胀的政策 Our team was eliminated in the first round.我们队在第一轮中被淘汰。 eliminate the false and retain the true去伪存真 eliminate the need of使不需要eliminate the possibility of排除这种可能性; 使不可能

  27. wordy a. using too many words a wordy and repetitive account.一篇冗长且重复的报告 wordy warfare争论; 舌战, 笔墨官司 a wordy conflict吵嘴 • publication n. (the printing and selling of) books, newspapers and magazines the publication of her first novel 她第一部小说的出版 The library gets the usual monthly publications.这家图书馆订的是那些常见的月刊。

  28. readership n. the particular number or type of people who read a book, newspaper or magazine It has a readership of 100 million.它拥有一亿读者。 (Readership)(Brit.)the position of Reader at a university(英)(大学的)高级讲师职务

  29. format n. the way or order in which sth. is arranged or presented a data file in binary format 二进制格式的数据文件。 Please format this floppy disc.请将这张软盘格式化。V. • mechanical a. concerned with small technical detail 技巧上的,细节上的 a mechanical device 机械装置 She stopped the mechanical brushing of her hair.她停止机械地梳理头发。

  30. preferable a. more desirable or suitable lower interest rates were preferable to higher ones 低利率比高利率更可取 Health without riches is preferable to riches without health.有健康而无财富比有财富而无健康更好。 • listing n. an act or instance of making a list Check alistings magazine for what’s on this weekend.查一下娱乐指南杂志,看这个周末有什么节目。 catalog listing目录表, 目录单 listing of materials材料的列单

  31. prose n. ordinary written language, in contrast to poetry a short story in prose 散文体短篇故事 a prose-poem散文诗 a prose writer散文作家 • sacrifice vt. give up, usu. for obtaining sth. for oneself or for others They offer sacrifices to the spirits.他们向神灵献祭。 We must all be prepared to make sacrifices. 我们大家都必须准备好作出牺牲。 The goat was sacrificed at the shrine.这只山羊被用作圣坛上的祭品。V.

  32. specialize v. adapt for a particular purpose He could specialize in tropical medicine.他能专门研究热带医药。 The firm specialized in commercial brochures. 这家公司专门生产商业手册。 specialize one's studies 使研究专门化specialize each item 逐项列举

  33. pretentious a. claming (in an unpleasant way) to have importance, artistic value or social rank that one does not really possess 做作的 a pretentious literary device.一种做作的写作手法 a pretentious speech夸夸其谈的演说 • jargon n. technical words expert use to discuss their subjects 行话 legal jargon 法律术语

  34. readable a. easy and enjoyable to read a marvelously readable book 一本读起来特别有趣的书 • framework n. a structure that shapes or supports sth. 框架 the theoretical framework of political sociology 政治社会学的理论框架

  35. III. phrases • on the job: while working; at work工作时;在干活; He died on the job while repairing a streetlamp.他在修路灯时因公殉职。 out of a job unemployed; redundant失业的;被解雇的

  36. make up • 编造 Tom makes up stories to amuse his little brother.汤姆编故事逗他的小弟弟。 • 讲和 The quarrel was only about a trivial matter, but it was years before they made it up.争吵只是为了一件小事, 但是过了多年他们才言归于好。 • 弥补, 偿还 Vitamin pills make up what you lack in your diet.维生素丸可补充你食物中所缺乏的营养。 • 补足, 凑足 She had to make up her income as a pianist by teaching piano students.她这个钢琴家的收入得靠教人弹琴来添补。

  37. 化装, 打扮 It didn't take her long to make up.她很快就化妆好了。 When she goes out to visit friends, she is very much made up.她出去访友时, 总是浓妆艳抹地打扮一番。 • 配制 The pharmacist made up the prescribed medicine.药剂师按方子配好了药。 • 铺床, 整理 Leave this notice hanging on your door, asking the servant to make up your room.留张便条挂在你房门上, 请服务员把你的房间整理一下。 • 组成, 构成 How many countries make up the Common Market?(欧洲)共同市场由多少国家组成? This is made up of three different parts.这由三个不同部分组成。

  38. in consideration of:in return for; on account of 作为…的报答,作为对…的酬报;考虑到,顾及;由于 He paid them in consideration of their services. 他付他们钱以酬谢他们的服务。 take into consideration: take into account考虑到,顾及 under consideration:being thought about在考虑中,在研究中 The abolition of the House of Lords was under consideration.废除贵族院一事正在研究中。

  39. as such [often with negative] in the exact sense of the word严格意义上的 e.g.,it is possible to stay overnight here although there is no guest house as such.虽然没有严格意义上的旅店,但还是有可能在这过一夜的。 • such as(1) for example e.g.,Wild flowers such as mountain pansy and wild thyme.野花,比如说圆三色堇花和野生百里香。(2)of a kind that; like那种的;像…的 an event such as we've shared.像我们曾经参与过的那种事件。

  40. such as it is (或they are) what little there is; for what it‘s worth虽然质量(或价值)不过如此 e.g.,The plot, such as it is, takes road movie form.情节虽不怎么样,却采用了流浪汉电影的形式。 • such-and-such used to refer vaguely to a person or thing that does not need to be specified某某人(或物) e.g.,So many enterprises to be sold by such-and-such a date.要在某个日子出售的那么多的企业。

  41. take on: • (1)承担 He is always ready to take on heavy responsibilities.他一向乐于挑重担。 • (2)呈现 The old factory has taken on a new look.这家老厂已呈现出一派新面貌。 • (3)雇用 They no longer have to take on large numbers of temporary workers to do the harvesting.他们再也不必雇用大量临时工来收割农作物。

  42. write up: rewrite in a fuller, better organized way; give a full written account of • We have finally finished the research work. Now we must write it all up.我们终于完成了调查报告, 现在我们要把它撰写成文。 • Our experiment was written up into a report.我们的实验已写成报告。

  43. get down: (1) write, record (usu. quickly or with difficulty) Make sure that you get it down and his signature on it.你一定要把它记下来, 并让他在上面签字。 • (2)使沮丧 The cold weather gets me down.寒冷的天气使我很沮丧。 • (3)下来; 下车 He got down from the ladder.他从梯子上下来了。 • (4)吞下, 咽下 The medicine is horrid and she couldn‘t get it down. • (5)弯下, 跪下 Her back was aching from having to get down in order to put things in and out of the bottom drawer.由于必须弯下腰来从最下面的抽屉中把东西拿进拿出, 她腰酸背痛了。

  44. IV. Text • Writing research reports for college or work is often found far more difficult thanit need so be. The following article offers some excellent adviceon how to make the task easier and the report more impressive and effective. Whether you write a research report for a college professor or for a demanding boss in your profession, the author's advice will put you well on your way to becoming a skillful report writer.


  46. 1. A surprising amount of one's time as a student and professional is spent reporting the results of one's research projects for presentation to teachers, managers, and clients. Indeed, without basic research skills and the ability to present research results clearly and completely, an individual will encounter many obstacles in school and on the job. • NOTE: • His debts amount to five thousand dollars. • This amounts to a refusal. • unexpectedly experience or be faced with (something difficult or hostile)遇到(困难或不利的事),碰到;面临 We have encountered one small problem.我们遇到了一个小问题。 meet unexpectedly and confront (an adversary)遭遇(敌手)The soldiers encountered a large crowd of demonstrators.士兵们遇到了一大群示威者。

  47. The need for some research-writing ability is felt nearly equally by college students in all fields, engineering and science as well as business and the humanities. Graduate study often makes great demands on the student's research-writing skills, and most professions continue the demand; education, advertising and marketing, economics and accounting, science and engineering, psychology, anthropology, the arts, and agriculture may all require regular reporting of research data.

  48. ELEMENTS OF THE RESEARCH PAPER • 2. The standard research report, regardless of the field or the intended reader, contains four major sections. These sections may be broken down into a variety of subsections, and they may be arranged in a variety of ways, but they regularly make up the core(the central or most important part of something) of the report. • NOTE: The allowance is paid regardless of age or income. 津贴发放不分年龄或收入。

  49. 3. Problem Section. The first required section of a research report is the statement of the problem with which the research project is concerned.①This section requires a precise statement of the underlying (fundamental) question which the researcher has set out to answer.②In this same section there should be an explanation of the significance --- social, economic, medical, psychological, educational, etc. --- of the question; in other words, why the investigation was worth conducting.

  50. Thus, if we set out, for example, to answer the question "What is the effect of regular consumption of fast foods on the health of the American teenager?" we must explain that the question is thought to have significantrelevance to the health of this segment of the population and might lead to some sort of regulations on such foods.