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BBI 3417 WRITING RESEARCH REPORTS

BBI 3417 WRITING RESEARCH REPORTS

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BBI 3417 WRITING RESEARCH REPORTS

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  1. BBI 3417 WRITING RESEARCH REPORTS DR CHAN MEI YUIT EXT 8712 BLOCK A, ROOM 018 PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  2. FIRST THINGS FIRST • Attendance rule • Course outline • Text book • Assessment • Plagiarism • Turnitin • Lecture/ discussion/ writing - Be ready for all three at all times • Collect research articles as you go PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  3. FIRST THINGS FIRST • Grammar – be responsible • Remember writing process cycle – practice what you have learnt • YOUR CHALLENGE: A research article fit to be presented at conferences or published PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  4. AVOIDING PLAGIARISM • A grave offence in academic writing • (What is the gravest offence?) • Remember: • Cite all sources of information used in your writing • General information is exempted • Avoid lifting expressions and strings of words from the source text when summarising or paraphrasing. • Avoid following too closely the information structure or arrangement of the source text when paraphrasing. PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  5. http://www.indiana.edu/~istd/definition.html PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  6. http://www.indiana.edu/~istd/definition.html • This tutorial is divided into sections: • The Indiana University Definition • Overview: when and how to give credit; recommendations; decision flowchart • Plagiarism Cases: links to Web sites describing real plagiarism cases • Examples: word-for-word and paraphrasing plagiarism -- 5 examples each • Practice with feedback: identifying plagiarism -- 10 items • Test: if you pass, you can print a confirmation certificate • Resources: Web sites, books, dictionary links, references PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  7. DO THE TEST AND PRINT OUT THE CONFIRMATION CERTIFICATE • HAND IN YOUR CONFIRMATION CERTIFICATE to your tutor (by the end of Week 2) PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  8. www.turnitin.com • Class ID: 3699224 • Password: distance • Go to www.turnitin.com. Click create account. Go to ‘New Students Start Here’. Follow the instructions to enrol yourself into the class using the Class ID and enrolment password. PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  9. www.turnitin.com • TO SUBMIT PAPER FOR SCANNING • Click on your class name. Click on assignment name (i.e. thesis drafts or research paper drafts). Click submit paper. Your paper should be in word document. • Wait for the report to be generated. Look for similarities indicated and rewrite your drafts. • You can submit your drafts as many times as you need to, before the due date, which is two(2) weeks before the start of the final examination week. PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  10. www.turnitin.com • LEARN ABOUT PLAGIARISM • Go to http://www.plagiarism.org. Read materials about plagiarism to educate yourself about plagiarism. PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  11. TYPICAL SECTIONS OF A RESEARCH REPORT PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  12. LABELLING OF SECTIONS MAY VARY PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  13. LABELLING OF SECTIONS MAY VARY PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  14. BEGINNING YOUR RESEARCH PROCESS • WHAT INTERESTS YOU? • WHAT BURNING QUESTION NEEDS TO BE ANSWERED? • HOW CAN YOUR RESEARCH MAKE A DIFFERENCE? • READ RELATED RESEARCH (JOURNAL ARTICLES, THESIS, REPORTS) • READ RELATED RESEARCH (JOURNAL ARTICLES, THESIS, REPORTS) • READ RELATED RESEARCH (JOURNAL ARTICLES, THESIS, REPORTS) PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  15. SEARCHING FOR READING MATERIAL • Library – books, journals, theses, project papers • Electronic databases (free for UPM users) • Ebscohost • Emerald • Organization Studies • Discourse and Communication • Business Communication Quarterly • Springer Journals • Sage Journals • ??? • Electronic theses • UMI Proquest Digital dissertations(free abstracts, pay for full theses) • University repositories – free access PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  16. SEARCHING FOR READING MATERIAL • Free journals • Asian EFL journal • FindArticles • Others • Journals • Subscription • Pay per article • SEE YOUR LIBRARY ADVISORS TO FIND WHAT OTHER ELECTRONIC JOURNAL DATABASES THE UNIVERSITY HAS SUBSCRIBED TO. • LOOK FOR PEER-REVIEWED/REFEREED JOURNALS PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  17. SEARCHING FOR READING MATERIAL • Websites • Websites of respectable organisations/ identity can be ascertained • E.g. World Health Organisation (WHO) • The British Council • Government websites • etc • NOT • Blogs • Forum comments • Doubtful organisations e.g Society of Geniuses on Earth PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  18. BEGINNING YOUR RESEARCH ASK YOURSELF WHETHER THE RESEARCH IS WORTH DOING BE A DEVIL’S ADVOCATE - --- SAY ‘SO WHAT?’ MAKE USE OF WHATEVER YOU HAVE READ FROM THE LITERATURE TO JUSTIFY YOUR CHOICE OF TOPIC WRITE ONE OR MORE RESEARCH QUESTION(S) DECIDE ON YOUR RESEARCH METHOD PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  19. Stating purpose of the study • Objectives • Research questions • Hypotheses PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  20. Objectives – research orientation • The aim of the study/research/investigation was to … • The study aimed to … • The objectives of the study were to … • The purpose of the study was to … • In this study, we sought to … • The overall objective of the study was to … Subject-verb agreement Objectives --- are/were PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  21. Objectives – report orientation • The aim of the report/thesis/ paper is to … • In this paper, we argue for … • The purpose of this report is to …. PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  22. Objectives • The aim of the investigation was to …describe music preferences among secondary school students. • The study sought to …investigate the English language learning needs of in-service teachers in vernacular schools in Malaysia. • The objective of this thesis is to …compare the language identity of migrant workers in Malaysia and Singapore. • The purpose of the present paper is to …examine the attitude of students in rural schools towards English lessons in school. PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  23. Objectives • In this study, we examined …the relationship between language attitude, home language, and ethnicity among undergraduates in Malaysian universities. • The overall objective of the thesis is to …explore the negotiation of consensus in small group communication. • The objective of the research was to find out teachers’ perception of the effectiveness of the teach of Science and Math in English policy. • The present paper investigates the problems faced by teachers in implementing the teaching of Science and Math in English policy. PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  24. Research questions • What is the effect of narrative writing of traumatic experience on psychological healing? • What are the expressions of negative feelings used in narrative writing of the group with post-traumatic experience compared with the control group? • What is the frequency and intensity of the negative and positive expressions used in narrative writing of traumatic experience? • Is there a significant difference in the healing process of the group who underwent narrative writing of traumatic experience? PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  25. Hypotheses • Null hypothesis: Ho • The rate of psychological healing is the same for children who underwent narrative writing of traumatic experience and the control group. OR • There is no significant difference between the rate of psychological healing for children who underwent narrative writing of traumatic experience and the control group. PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  26. Hypotheses • Alternative hypothesis: Ha • The rates of psychological healing between children who underwent narrative writing of traumatic experience and the control group are significantly different. OR • There is a significant difference between the rate of psychological healing of children who underwent narrative writing of traumatic experience and the control group PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  27. Purpose of the study • Let’s try writing statements of the purpose of a study. • I am interested to look at the reading habits of students in rural area. It is important to know how many books, magazines, and newspapers in English and other languages such as Mandarin, Tamil or Malay that they read. Furthermore, I think there could be a connection between how much they read in English and how much they read in their own mother tongue. • Backed up by evidence or hypotheses from the literature PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  28. Purpose of the study • The aim of the study was to investigate the reading habits of students studying in schools in the rural area. Specifically, it sought to: • ??? PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  29. Purpose of the study • The aim of the study was to investigate the reading habits of students studying in schools in the rural area. Specifically, it sought to: • determine the amount of reading done by the students in terms of the number and type of reading materials they read in a month. • ??? PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  30. Purpose of the study • The aim of the study was to investigate the reading habits of students studying in schools in the rural area. Specifically, it sought to: • determine the amount of reading done by the students in terms of the number and type of reading materials they read in a month. • determine the language of the reading materials read by the students • ??? PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  31. Purpose of the study • The aim of the study was to investigate the reading habits of students studying in schools in the rural area. Specifically, it sought to: • determine the amount of reading done by the students in terms of the number and type of reading materials they read in a month. • determine the language of the reading materials read by the students • examine the relationship between the number and type of reading materials read by the students and the language of the materials • ??? PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  32. Purpose of the study • The aim of the study was to investigate the reading habits of students studying in schools in the rural area. Specifically, it sought to: • determine the amount of reading done by the students in terms of the number and type of reading materials they read in a month. • determine the language of the reading materials read by the students • examine the relationship between the number and type of reading materials read by the students and the language of the materials • Determine the relationship between the amount of reading done in English and the amount of reading done in the students’ mother tongue. PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  33. INTRODUCTION It puts your study forward PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  34. Introduction • Describes the background of the research • Places the research within the context of other research done in the area • Provides rationale/ justification for the research topic – identifies the variables of the research/ the gaps/lacks in the area being researched (practical, literature) • States the purpose of the research • Theoretical framework/ Methodology – may be briefly described • States the significance/expected contribution of the research (practical significance, theoretical significance) PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  35. Stages of the Introduction PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  36. Stages of the Introduction Wider context leading to the introduction of the variables About the variables Problems directly related to the variables Variables only PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  37. Class Activity • Refer to the research article provided • Identify the parts that present the setting/background information, review of the literature, the statement of the problem, the objectives and the significance of the study. PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  38. The Introduction • (Setting/background - general lack of English proficiency of Malaysian students) • (reasons commonly given for this state of affairs) • (more details given on the reasons (variables of interest to the study) – poor reading habits, lack of proficiency in English, preference to read in one’s mother tongue …) • (Review of the literature related to reading habits, proficiency, and language of reading materials, and the connection among them – what have other researchers said/found about reading habits, proficiency and the language of reading materials?) PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  39. The Introduction • (Statement of the problem – what don’t we know about the relationship between reading habits, proficiency, and the language of reading materials? How does this pose a problem to us? Argumentative writing - ??? What’s your argument here?) • (Remember, the idea is to argue for the rationale for your own study, to show that your proposed study of the variables has a valid place and importance in the overall scheme of things in the selected area.) PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  40. The Introduction • (Objectives – state the main/overall purpose of the study. State the aim to investigate/examine/describe the variables and the connection between the variables) • (Significance – what /who can the results of the study benefit? What are the possible contributions of the study?) PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  41. Variables?? What are they? • What concepts/phenomena are you planning to investigate in your research? What concepts are stated in your (tentative) objectives? ---------------------------------------------------------------------- • The aim of the investigation was to describe music preferencesamong secondary school students or different ages. • The overall objective of the thesis is to explore the negotiation of consensusin small group communication. • The rate of psychological healing is the same for children who underwent narrative writing of traumatic experience and the control group. YOUR LITERATURE REVIEW MUST ADDRESS THESE VARIABLES PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  42. Writing the Literature Review • Skills needed • Critical thinking and decision making skills • Select appropriate, relevant studies that can be used to lend support to the rationale for your research • Summarising and paraphrasing skills • Referencing skills/ academic citation skills PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  43. REFERENCING SKILLS Incorporating information from other sources into your writing PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  44. Referencing Skills In general, referencing involves four basic skills: • quoting • paraphrasing or summarising • integrating information into the text • presenting a full list of references. Various styles are available: APA, MLA, Chicago etc. Choose only one style PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  45. Quotation • The first three skills are citations within the text = called in-text citation. • Quotations are exact words from the original source used in your essay. Put within double quotation marks the part of the text from the original article that you are including in your essay. Cite the source of the information at the end of the quotation in parenthesis (surname of author, year, page number). Examples • As Jack Collins notes in Sociology Today, “80 percent of sexual harassment at the workplace go unreported” (2005, p. 23). • A recent study conducted in Singapore reported that “80 percent of sexual harassment at the workplace go unreported” (Collins, 2005, p. 23). PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  46. Paraphrases and summaries • For paraphrases or summaries, the part of the article you wish to include in your essay is paraphrased or summarised. That means you restate what the author of the article has said using your own words. No quotation marks are required for paraphrasing and summarising, and the source is cited in parenthesis (surname of author, year). PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  47. Paraphrases and summaries • Example • Author: Jack Collins • Year of publication: 2005 Original text “…The results show that 85% of sexual harassment victims at the workplace suffer in silence. Few of them take the step to report the harassment to either the police or the management, possibly due to the fear of being further victimised by the perpetrators”. PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  48. Paraphrases and summaries Paraphrase: • According to Collins (2005), 85 percent of workers who are victims of sexual harassment keep their suffering to themselves instead of lodging a report with the authorities. Summary: •  The current statistics may not show the true situation, as it has been reported that most victims who suffer workplace sexual harassment do not report it (Collins,2005). • ALL INFORMATION CITED MUST BE ACCURATE • The current statistics may not show the true situation, as it has been reported that 85% of victims who suffer workplace sexual harassment are afraid to report it (Collins, 2005). (X) PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  49. Referring verbs • Both quotations and paraphrases/summaries are called in-text citations because they appear within the text of your essay. If the name of the author is mentioned within a sentence in the text, an appropriate referring verb is required. Only the year of publication, then, appears in parenthesis at the end of the sentence. AUTHOR PROMINENT CITATION Examples: • As Jack Collins notes … (2005) • In his study on chimpanzee behaviour, Bash and Horrowitz found that … (1997) • The annual accident report from the MOE indicated that … (2005) • Professor Fong strongly believes that … (2008) PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417

  50. Referring verbs • However, if the name of the author is not used within a sentence, no referring verb is required, and the parenthetical citation requires the name of the author and the year of publication. INFORMATION PROMINENT CITATION • Examples: • Most victims who suffer workplace sexual harassment do not report it (Collins, 2005). • Chimpanzees exhibit strong communal tendencies (Bash & Horrowitz, 1997). • Road accidents resulting in fatalities increased by 20% last year (Annual Accident Report, 2005). PJJ/CMY/SEM 2, 2010-2011/ BBI3417