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CELLS. Chapter 3. Molecules move across membranes in several ways. Passive transport. Two kinds Diffusion Osmosis. Diffusion and Concentration Gradients. Diffusion . Simple & Facilitated Diffusion. simple diffusion facilitated diffusion . Defects in Transport Proteins .

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cells

CELLS

Chapter 3

passive transport
Passive transport
  • Two kinds
    • Diffusion
    • Osmosis
simple facilitated diffusion
Simple & Facilitated Diffusion
  • simple diffusion
  • facilitated diffusion
defects in transport proteins
Defects in Transport Proteins
  • Can reduce or even bring facilitated diffusion to a complete stop
  • Serious health consequences
  • Many genetic diseases s/a cystinuria
    • when structured and functioning properly, this transport protein facilitates the diffusion of some amino acids (including cystine, from which the disease gets its name) out of the kidneys
    • when proteins are malformed, they cannot facilitate diffusion
    • amino acids build up in the kidneys, forming painful and dangerous kidney stones
an amoeba is placed in a solution the volume of the cell increases cell swells
An amoeba is placed in a solution. The volume of the cell increases (cell swells).

The amoeba is in a hypertonic solution.

Water is moving into the amoeba.

The amoeba is in a isotonic solution.

Water is moving out of the amoeba.

two types of active transport
Two types of active transport
  • Primary –
  • Secondary –
primary active transport
Primary Active Transport
  • To help break down food
slide15

A normal cell has a high concentration of potassium on the inside and a low concentration of potassium on the outside. Also, a normal cell has a low concentration of sodium on the inside and a high concentration on the outside. Yet, the net movement of potassium is into the cell and the net movement of sodium is out of the cell. What type of transport is involved?

Osmosis

Facilitated transport

Active transport

Simple diffusion

Secondary active transport

secondary active transport
Secondary Active Transport
  • Transport protein simultaneously moves one molecule against its concentration gradient while letting another flow down its concentration gradient.
slide17

An intestinal epithelial cell powers the movement of glucose into the cell against its concentration gradient by simultaneously transporting sodium down its concentration gradient. Which transport mechanism is responsible?

Osmosis

Facilitated transport

Active transport

Simple diffusion

Secondary active transport

3 types of endocytosis
3 types of endocytosis
  • Phagocytosis – “cell eating”
  • Pinocytosis – “cell drinking”
  • Receptor-mediated endocytosis
faulty cell membranes are a primary cause of cardiovascular disease
Faulty cell membranes are a primary cause of cardiovascular disease
  • Cholesterol
  • large numbers of LDL receptors on liver cell  
faulty cell membranes are a primary cause of cardiovascular disease1
Faulty cell membranes are a primary cause of cardiovascular disease
  • Those who consume food laden with too much cholesterol
  • This outcome can result in the early onset of cardiovascular disease.
  • Familial hypercholesterolemia –
connections between cells hold them in place and enable them to communicate with each other
Connections between cells hold them in place and enable them to communicate with each other
  • Involves numerous types of protein and glycoprotein adhesion molecules
tight junctions
Tight Junctions
  • water-tight seals
  • anchor cells in place
  • small intestine
desmosomes
Desmosomes
  • fasten cells together
  • Velcro:
  • cavities of animal bodies
gap junctions
Gap Junctions
  • Pores
  • Large enough for
  • Too small for
  • cell-to-cell communication
    • heart:
    • cell recognition
    • chemicals flowing from one cell to the next
slide32

Your skin is water proof. What type of cell-cell junction is most likely involved in creating a water-tight barrier between the outside and inside of your body?

Tight junctions

Desmosomes

Gap junctions

how can a lack of communication between cells lead to cancer
How can a lack of communication between cells lead to cancer?
  • Contact inhibition
  • Cancer cells
plasmodesmata
Plasmodesmata
  • Plant Cells