Terrorism Is Theatre As stated by Brian Jenkins - terrorism expert - terrorist acts are often deliberately spectacular, designed to rattle and influence a wide audience, beyond the victims of the violence itself.
The Terrorism Picture I • New York City- Jan 24, 1975 • Beirut, Lebanon- Apr 18, 1983 • Beirut, Lebanon- Oct 23, 1983 • Beirut, Lebanon- June 14, 1985 • Ireland- June 23, 1985
The Terrorism Picture II • Locerbie, Scotland- Dec 21, 1988 • New York City- Feb 26, 1993 • Manila, Philippines- Jan 1995 • Oklahoma City- Apr 19, 1995 • Tokyo, Japan- March 1995
The Terrorism Picture III • Dharan, Saudi Arabia- June 25, 1996 • Nairobi, Kenya, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania- Aug 7, 1998 • Canada- Dec 1999 • Aden, Yemen- Oct 12, 2000 • New York City and Arlington, VA- Sept 11, 2001
National Liberation Army Palestine Islamic Jihad Popular Liberation Front Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party/Front Al Queda Armed Islamic Group Japanese Red Army Al-Jihad Common Terrorist Organizations
FBI Definition . . . the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.
Department of Defense Definition . . . the calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.
State Department Definition . . . an activity, directed against persons involving violent acts or acts dangerous to human life which would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the U.S.; and is intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population; to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or to affect the conduct of a government by assassination or kidnapping…to include the use of certain weapons of mass destruction.
Terrorism is • A specific type of violence. • Perpetrated. • Calculated. • Motivated by political, religious, or ideological objectives. • Intended to produce fear. • Carried out by subnational groups.
United Nations’ Definition . . . all war crimes will be considered acts of terrorism, in which case most every government in the world has committed terrorism, though few have ever faced justice or were even disgraced for doing so.
Terrorism or Acts of War “One man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter.
Nationalist Religious State-sponsored Left-wing Right-wing Anarchist Terrorism can be either domestic or international. Types of Terrorism
Seek to form a separate state for their own national group, often by drawing attention to a fight for “national liberation” that they think the world has ignored. Example groups include Irish Republican Army, Palestine Liberation Organization, Basque Fatherland and Liberty, and Kurdistan Workers’ Party Nationalist Terrorism
Seek to use violence to further what they see as divinely commanded purposes, often targeting broad categories of foes in an attempt to bring about sweeping changes. Examples include Osama bin Laden’s al-Queda network, Palestinian Sunni Muslim organization Hamas, Lebanese Shiite group Hezbollah, and some American white-supermacist militias Religious Terrorism
Deliberately used by radical states as foreign policy tools. State Department says Iran is the primary state sponsor of terrorism today. Examples include Hezbollah backed by Iran, Abu Nibal Organization backed by Iraq, Japanese Red Army that often work on contracts for Libya State-Sponsored Terrorism
Out to destroy capitalism and replace it with a communist or socialist regime. Examples include Baader-Meinhof Group (Germany), Japanese Red Army (Lebanon), The Weathermen (America 1970s), and Red Brigades (Italy) Left-Wing Terrorism
Seek to do away with liberal democratic governments and create fascist states in their place. Examples include neo-Nazi or Neofascist terrorist groups. Right-Wing Terrorism
Anarchist Terrorism • Revolutionaries seek to overthrow established governments launched a wave of bombing and assassinated a series of heads of state. • Leon Czolgosz, anarchist who assassinated President William McKinley in 1901.
Involves groups or individuals who are based and operate entirely within the United States or its territories without foreign direction and whose acts are directed at elements of the U.S. Government or population. Examples include Timothy McVeigh (right-wing), The World Church of the Creator (right-wing), Aryan Nations (right-wing), Popular Puerto Rican Army (left-wing), and Los Macheteros (left-wing). Domestic Terrorism
Involves extremist special interest groups who seek to influence special issues, rather than effect widespread political change. Examples include Eric Robert Rudolph, Army of God, extremists of animal rights, pro-life, environmental, and anti-nuclear groups. Special Interest Terrorism
Three Categories of Motivation • Rational • Psychological • Cultural
Suicide Terrorism • Is not new. • Has evolved over the years. • Has reemerged with a vengeance. • Is becoming more common.
The Suicide Terrorist • Is not necessarily crazy. • Does not necessarily fit a common profile. • Can be female. • Rarely works alone.
Terrorist Organization • Terrorists organize to function in the environments where they carry out their acts. • Terrorist groups that are not supported by a government usually create a support structure of sympathizers and people who have been coerced into helping them.
Assassinations Bombings Arson Hostage-taking Hijacking Kidnapping Seizure and occupation of a building Attacks on a facility Sabotage Perpetration of hoaxes Ecological terrorism Nuclear, biological, chemical weapons and materials. Contemporary Terrorist Actions
Combating Terrorism • Antiterrorism is defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts, to include limited response and containment by local military forces. • Counterterrorism involves those offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism.
U.S. Counterterrorism Policy • First, make no concessions to terrorists and strike no deals. • Second, bring terrorists to justice for their crimes. • Third, isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism to force them to change their behavior. • Fourth, bolster the counterterrorism capabilities of those countries that work with the U.S. and require assistance.
Terrorism in the Future • Higher than ever levels of violence. • Although technology aids in the defense against terrorism, it also provides terrorists with increased opportunities. • Ecological disasters • Chemical weapons • Weapons of mass destruction
The Target May Be You • As US military personnel you will continue to be targets for terrorists for the same reason we have in the past. • Collectively and individually, we symbolize US power.
Core Values and Terrorism • Honor • Stand strong in the face of adversity when dealing with terrorism and terrorist acts. • Courage • Rationally combat any threats or acts of terrorism. • Commitment • Eradicate all terrorism when and where possible.
Summary • Defined terrorism. • Types of terrorism. • Motivation for terrorists. • Suicide terrorism. • Terrorist organization. • Combating terrorism. • Terrorism in the future. • Navy Core Values.
References • DoD Directive O-2000, DoD Combating Terrorism Program • SECNAVINST 3300.2 • U.S. Code Title 18 Chapter 113B • http://faculty.ncwc.edu • http://www.state.gov • http://www.cqpress.com