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Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue. Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue Goals and Safety Considerations Hazards Tools and Resources Search Operations Rescue Operations Size-Up. Search and Rescue. Goals and Safety Considerations. Search and Rescue Defined.

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Unit 5: Light Search & Rescue
  • Goals and Safety Considerations
  • Hazards
  • Tools and Resources
  • Search Operations
  • Rescue Operations
  • Size-Up
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Search and Rescue

Goals and Safety Considerations

Search and Rescue Defined

A systematic approach for locating, rescuing (extricating), and providing initial medical treatment to victims trapped.

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Search and Rescue

Goals and Safety Considerations

Safety

  • Stay aware of your surroundings
  • Assume all downed wires are live
  • Stay coordinated and in communication with your team
  • Do not exceed your capabilities or training
  • Stay hydrated-take breaks
  • Watch for fatigue in yourself and your crew
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Search and Rescue

Goals and Safety Considerations

LCES

  • Lookout or safety person
  • Communication
  • Escape routes
  • Safety zones
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Search and Rescue

Hazards

Scene Hazards

  • Above Ground:
    • Electrical wires
    • Walls/cornices
    • Unreinforced chimneys
  • Ground Level:
    • Glass and debris
  • Below Grade:
    • Earth
    • Water
    • Hazardous Materials/sewage
    • Manmade structures
    • Propane
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Search and Rescue

Hazards

Damage Classification

  • Study the outward signs!!
  • Light Damage
    • Superficial to exterior, mostly interior
  • Moderate Damage
    • More apparent – cracking but no lean
  • Heavy Damage
    • Partial/total collapse
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Search and Rescue

Hazards

Light, medium, or heavy???

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Search and Rescue

Hazards

Signs of Structural Instability

  • Uneven windows
  • Cracked foundation and/or walls
  • Distinct lack of plumbness
  • Wood frames do well in earthquakes, but…
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Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Basic Tools Should Include

  • PPE
  • Go – bag
  • Duct tape
  • Extinguisher
  • Axe
  • Prying and various carpentry tools
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Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Forcing Doors and Windows

  • Feel doors for heat
  • Break a glass panel in a door, reach in, unlock…much easier
  • Pound directly on lock with sledge
  • Windows:
    • See if they’re open
    • Tools
    • Break
    • Glass types
  • Announce yourself
  • Try before you pry!
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Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Points of Entry

  • Front door
    • Open?
    • Keys?
  • Any window or glass door
  • Upper floor deck
  • Garage door…caution!
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Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Breaking Glass

  • Stand to one side
  • Keep hands above tool’s contact point
  • Start at top of window and work down
  • Clear frame of all glass and debris

*Different glass

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Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Garage Doors

  • Same techniques as windows
  • Jam the door OPEN when going inside garage
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Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Ladder Safety

  • Ten feet from wires
  • Secure ladder
  • Correct ladder angle
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Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Box Cribbing

*Improvised resources?

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Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Mechanical Advantage and Lifting

  • Levers
  • Jacks
  • Cribbing
  • Wedges and Shims
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Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Lifting Heavy Objects

  • See if you can lift the item without mechanical advantage
  • Use proper body mechanics

BEND KNEES AND SQUAT

KEEP BACK STRAIGHT

KEEP LOAD NEXT TO BODY

PUSH UP WITH LEGS

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Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Lifting Procedure

  • Have all materials ready
  • Everyone aware of plan including victim
  • Crib to object being lifted
  • Lift height of 1 piece of cribbing
  • Slide cribbing under object
  • Set object down on cribbing
  • Keep hands out from underneath object

Repeat this process until victim can be removed

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Search and Rescue

Tools and Resources

Know Your Limits

  • Physical Condition
  • Mental Condition

DON’T OVEREXTEND YOURSELF

DON’T BECOME A VICTIM

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Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Search and Rescue Survival Rates

Time of Rescue

30 Minutes

1 Day

2 Days

3 Days

4 Days

5 Days

Survival Rate

99.3%

81.0%

33.7%

36.7%

19.0%

7.4%

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Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Search Overview

  • Two teams of two
  • Exterior controls scene outside
  • Interior completes the search
  • Both should have utility shutoff tools, documentation items, and PPE
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Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Types of Collapses and Voids

  • Voids form due to collapse
  • Primary concern is your safety
  • Four basic collapses in order of least to most hazardous:
    • Lean-to
    • V-shape
    • Pancake
    • Cantilever
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Search and Rescue

Search Operations

V-Shape Collapse

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Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Pancake Collapse

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Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Cantilever Collapse (after support)

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Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Some Search Tips

  • Preplan the search
  • Be systematic – follow the same direction all the way around rooms
  • Have prearranged signal system with exterior team
  • Always stay in pairs!
  • Don’t become a victim! Play it safe and get out if you hear creaking, sense movement, or smell gas!
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Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Before Entering Building

  • Mark the outside of the building a diagonal line with paint or pen
  • Write the time and date
  • Write the CERT team name
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Search and Rescue

Search Operations

After Exiting Building

  • Mark the outside of the building another diagonal line forming an “X”
  • Write the time and date the search team left structure
  • Write hazards found and conditions found
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Search and Rescue

Search Operations

Building Marking Sample

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Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue

  • Starts once victim is located
  • Size-up
  • Assess needed resources
  • Have a good plan and make sure all understand it!
  • Plan escape routes
  • Determine medical needs
  • Keep it simple
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Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue

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Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue

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Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue

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Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue

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Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue

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Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

Rescue

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Search and Rescue

Rescue Operations

General Rules

  • Always form a plan everyone understands
  • Designate a team leader and a safety officer
  • Full PPE
  • Have equipment ready for your assigned task
  • Always crib up to your object
  • Be ready to adapt if your plan is not working
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Search and Rescue

Size-Up

Size-Up

Gather facts.

Assess and communicate damage.

Assess your resources.

Establish priorities.

Develop a rescue plan.

Take action.

Evaluate your progress.

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Search and Rescue

Review

Search and Rescue Review

  • Size-up your scene and know your situation.
  • Be safe!
  • Greatest good.
  • Establish a search process.
  • Rescue victims and treat as needed.
  • Teamwork and communications.
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Search and Rescue

Size-up

Size-up Scenario

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