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Nuclear physics: the ISOLDE facility. Lecture 2: CERN-ISOLDE facility. Magdalena Kowalska CERN, PH-Dept. kowalska@cern.ch on behalf of the CERN ISOLDE team www.cern.ch/isolde. Outline . Aimed at both physics and non-physics students. Lecture 1: Introduction to nuclear physics

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nuclear physics the isolde facility

Nuclear physics:the ISOLDE facility

Lecture 2: CERN-ISOLDE facility

Magdalena Kowalska

CERN, PH-Dept.

kowalska@cern.ch

on behalf of the CERN ISOLDE team

www.cern.ch/isolde

outline
Outline

Aimed at both physics and non-physics students

  • Lecture 1: Introduction to nuclear physics
  • This lecture: CERN-ISOLDE facility
    • Types of radioactive ion beam facilities
    • ISOLDE within CERN
    • Beam production at ISOLDE
  • Lecture 3: Physics of ISOLDE
open questions in nuclear physics
Open questions in nuclear physics

2 kinds of interacting fermions

How to answer the questions:

Study nuclei with very different numbers of protons and neutrons

(NuPECC long-range plan 2010)

rib facilities
RIB facilities
  • Two main types of (complementary) RIB facilities:
    • ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) and In-Flight

RIB:

Radioactive Ion Beam

Rare Isotope Beam

Light beam

heavy beam

rib facilities worldwide
RIB facilities worldwide
  • Existing and in preparation

ISOL-type

In-Flight

After B. Sherill

isolde short history
ISOLDE – short history

First beam October 1967

Upgrades 1974 and 1988

New facility June 1992

isolde elements
ISOLDE elements

Isotope production via reactions of light beam with thick and heavy target

Separator

Target

Production – ionization – separation

ion beam intensity
Ion beam intensity
  • Number of extracted ions (yield) is governed by:

primary particle flux x reaction cross section x number of target particles x efficiencies

According to Ulli Koester:

production targets
Production targets

p+

p+

p+

p+

p+

p+

  • Over 20 target materials and ionizers, depending on beam of interest
  • U, Ta, Zr, Y, Ti, Si, …
  • Target material and transfer tube heated to 1500 – 2000 degrees
  • Operated by robots due to radiation

Target

Target

Converter

Converter Target

Standard

ionization
Ionization
  • Surface
  • Plasma
  • Lasers

After U. Koester

beam extraction and separation
Beam extraction and separation
  • All produced ions are extracted by electrostatic field (up to 60kV)
  • The interesting nuclei are mass selected via magnetic field
    • Lorentz force: depends on velocity and mass
    • m/dm <5000, so many unwanted isobars also get to experiments

U

To experiments

=

=

production ionization extraction
Production, ionization, extraction

target

Target+ vacuum+ extraction

Ion energy: 30-60keV

robots

separation
Separation

Magnet separators (General Purpose and High Resolution)

post acceleration
Post-acceleration

Increase in charge state

A/q selection

Ion trapping and cooling

REX accelerator

Rf acceleration

3MeV*A beam to experiment

example astatine isotopes
Example – astatine isotopes
  • How to produce pure beams of astatine isotopes (all are radioactive)?
    • Use lasers to ionize them
    • And determine

for the first time

the At ionization potential

S. Rothe et al,

Nature Communications 4 (2013), 1835

extracted nuclides
Extracted nuclides

More than 700 nuclides of over 70 chemical elements delivered to users – by far largest choice among ISOL-type facilities (experience gathered over 40 years)

experimental hall
Experimental hall

Decay spectroscopy

Coulomb excitation

Transfer reactions

Laser spectroscopy

Beta-NMR

Penning traps

Target stations

HRS & GPS

PS-Booster

1.4 GeV protons

3×1013ppp

Mass-sep.

HRS

WITCH

ISCOOL

RILIS

REX-ISOLDE

Travelling setups

NICOLE

Post-accelerated beams

MINIBALL and T-REX

Collection points

Travelling setups

COLLAPS

CRIS

ISOLTRAP

TAS

hie isolde upgrade
HIE-ISOLDE upgrade

High Intensity and Energy ISOLDE

Works on-going

First post-accelerated beam in 2015/2016

isolde physics topics
ISOLDE physics topics

Applied Physics

Implanted Radioactive Probes, Tailored Isotopes for Diagnosis and Therapy

Condensed matter physics and Life sciences

Nuclear Physics

Nuclear Decay Spectroscopy and Reactions

Structure of Nuclei

Exotic Decay Modes

Fundamental Physics

Direct Mass Measurements, Dedicated Decay Studies - WI

CKM unitarity tests, search for

b-n correlations, right-handed currents

Atomic Physics

Laser Spectroscopy and Direct Mass Measurements

Radii, Moments, Nuclear Binding Energies

Nuclear Astrophysics

Dedicated Nuclear Decay/Reaction Studies

Element Synthesis,

Solar Processes

f(N,Z)

summary
Summary
  • Two complementary types of RIB facilities
    • ISOL and in-flight
    • Several dozen facilities worldwide and new ones coming
  • ISOLDE at CERN
    • ISOL-type facility which uses protons from PSB
    • Elements: production target, ionization, extraction, separation, (post-acceleration)
    • Largest variety of beams worldwide
    • Upgrade project: HIE-ISOLDE
  • ISOLDE research topics:
    • Nuclear physics
    • Atomic physics
    • Nuclear astrophysics
    • Fundamental studies
    • Applications
    • => Lecture 3
reaction probability1
Reaction probability
  • Primary beam type and energy are important
research with radionuclides
Research with radionuclides

34Ne:

10 protons + 24 neutrons

Does it exist?

?

=

Mean field

relative abundance

fp-shell

28

20

sd-shell

mass

8

p-shell

2

s-shell

Nuclear physics

Strong interaction in many-nucleon systems

Nuclear driplines

Astrophysics

Nucleo-synthesis, starevolution

Abundances of elements

Fundamental studies

Beyond standard model (neutrino mass, …)

Applications, e.g.

Solid state physics, life sciences

properties of radio nuclides
Properties of radio-nuclides
  • Different neutron-to-proton ratio than stable nuclei leads to:
    • New structure properties
    • New decay modes

=> Nuclear models have problems predicting and even explaining the observations

  • Example - halo nucleus 11Li:
    • Extended neutron wave functions make 11Li the size of 208Pb
    • When taking away 1 neutron, the other is not bound any more (10Li is not bound)
eurisol
EURISOL
  • Future European RIB facility
rex post accelerator
REX post-accelerator
  • EBIS
  • Super conducting solenoid, 2 T
  • Electron beam < 0.4A 3-6 keV
  • Breeding time 3 to >200 ms
  • Total capacity 6·1010 charges
  • A/q < 4.5
  • Nier-spectrometer
  • Select the correct A/q and separate the radioactive ions from the residual gases.
  • A/q resolution ~150

REXEBIS

MASS SEPARATOR

Optional stripper

ISOLDE

ISOLDE beam

Primarytarget

7-GAP RESONATORS

9-GAP RESONATOR

IH

RFQ

Rebuncher

60 keV

0.3 MeV/u

3.0 MeV/u

2.2 MeV/u

1.2 MeV/u

REXTRAP

Experiments

  • REX-trap
  • Cooling (10-20 ms)
    • Buffer gas + RF
  • (He), Li,...,U
  • 108 ions/pulse
  • (Space charge effects >105)

Linac

Length 11 m

Freq. 101MHz (202MHz for the 9GP)

Duty cycle 1ms 100Hz (10%)

Energy 300keV/u, 1.2-3MeV/u

A/q max. 4.5 (2.2MeV/u), 3.5 (3MeV/u)

Total efficiency : 1 -10 %

18 May 2009

New opportunities in the physics landscape at CERN

35

hie isolde
HIE-ISOLDE

Quarter-wave resonators

(Nb sputtered)

  • SC-linac between 1.2 and 10 MeV/u
  • 32 SC QWR (20 @ b0=10.3% and 12@ b0=6.3%)
  • Energy fully variable; energy spread and bunch length are tunable. Average synchronous phase fs= -20 deg
  • 2.5<A/q<4.5 limited by the room temperature cavity
  • 16.02 m length (without matching section)
  • No ad-hoc longitudinal matching section (incorporated in the lattice)
  • New beam transfer line to the experimental stations