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Nuclear Energy

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  1. Nuclear Energy Professor Stephen Lawrence Leeds School of Business University of Colorado at Boulder

  2. Overview of Nuclear Energy Nuclear Physics Nuclear Fuel Nuclear Power Plants Radiation Nuclear Waste Nuclear Safety Nuclear Power and the Environment Nuclear Power Economics Nuclear Power – Pro & Con Future of Nuclear Power Agenda

  3. Overview of Nuclear Power

  4. Nuclear energy consumption by area

  5. http://www.nei.org

  6. http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.html

  7. World Nuclear Power Plants http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.html

  8. Electric Power Generation http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.html

  9. Electric Consumption Profile http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.html

  10. US Nuclear Generation Trends http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_generation/gensum.html

  11. Nuclear Physics

  12. Nuclear Binding Energy http://www.euronuclear.org/info/encyclopedia/n/nuclearenergy.htm

  13. Nuclear Binding Energy 2 Maximum Stability (Iron) http://www.euronuclear.org/info/encyclopedia/n/nuclearenergy.htm

  14. Nuclear Fission http://users.aber.ac.uk/jrp3/nuclear_power.htm

  15. Nuclear Chain Reaction http://www.btinternet.com/~j.doyle/SR/Emc2/Fission.htm

  16. Nuclear Fuel

  17. Uranium http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fuel_cycle

  18. Creating Uranium Fuel • 50,000 tonnes of ore from mine • 200 tonnes of uranium oxide concentrate (U3O8) • Milling process at mine • 25 tonnes of enriched uranium oxide • uranium oxide is converted into a gas, uranium hexafluoride (UF6), • Every tonne of uranium hexafluoride separated into about 130 kg of enriched UF6 (about 3.5% U-235) and 870 kg of 'depleted' UF6 (mostly U-238). • The enriched UF6 is finally converted into uranium dioxide (UO2) powder • Pressed into fuel pellets which are encased in zirconium alloy tubes to form fuel rods.

  19. Uranium Mined and Refined

  20. Uranium Enrichment

  21. Nuclear Fuel Pellet

  22. Pellets Encased in Ceramic

  23. Pellets Inserted into Rods

  24. Sources of Uranium http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.html

  25. World Uranium Production http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.html

  26. Nuclear Power Plants

  27. Nuclear Power Plants • Work best at constant power • Excellent for baseload power • Power output range of 40 to 2000 MW • Current designs are 600 to1200 MW • 441 licensed plants operating in 31 countries • Produce about 17% of global electrical energy

  28. Nuclear Power Plant

  29. Nuclear PP Cooling Tower http://www.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-power.htm/printable

  30. Core of Nuclear Reactor http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_reactors

  31. Nuclear PP Control Room http://www.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-power.htm/printable

  32. Idea of a Nuclear Power Plant Steam Spinning turbine blades and generator Boiling water

  33. Nuclear Heat Steam Generator Steam produced Turbine Electricity Heat

  34. Controlling Chain Reaction Fuel Assemblies Control rods Withdraw control rods, reaction increases Insert control rods, reaction decreases

  35. Boiling Water Reactor

  36. Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) • Reactor core creates heat • Steam-water mixture is produced when very pure water (reactor coolant) moves upward through the core absorbing heat • The steam-water mixture leaves the top of the core and enters the two stages of moisture separation where water droplets are removed before the steam is allowed to enter the steam line • Steam line directs the steam to the main turbine causing it to turn the turbine generator, which produces electricity.

  37. Pressurized Water Reactor Steam

  38. Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) • Reactor core generates heat • Pressurized-water in the primary coolant loop carries the heat to the steam generator • Inside the steam generator heat from the primary coolant loop vaporizes the water in a secondary loop producing steam • The steam line directs the steam to the main turbine causing it to turn the turbine generator, which produces electricity

  39. Reactor Safety Design Containment Vessel 1.5-inch thick steel Shield Building Wall 3 foot thick reinforced concrete Dry Well Wall 5 foot thick reinforced concrete Bio Shield 4 foot thick leaded concrete with 1.5-inch thick steel lining inside and out Reactor Vessel 4 to 8 inches thick steel Reactor Fuel Weir Wall 1.5 foot thick concrete

  40. Tour of a Nuclear Power Plant

  41. Source: Nuclear Engineering International handbook 1999, but including Pickering A in Canada. http://www.uic.com.au/opinion6.html

  42. Advanced Research Designs • Generation IV Reactors • Gas cooled fast reactor • Lead cooled fast reactor • Molten salt reactor • Sodium-cooled fast reactor • Supercritical water reactor • Very high temperature reactor http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_reactor

  43. SSTAR Design • SSTAR – Small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor • Fast breeder reactor • Tamper resistant, passively safe, self-contained fuel source (U238) • 30 year life • Produce constant power of 10-100 MW • 15m high × 3 m wide; 500 tonnes • Prototype expected by 2015 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SSTAR

  44. SSTAR Schematic http://www.llnl.gov/str/JulAug04/gifs/Smith1.jpg

  45. Radiation

  46. Types of Radiation http://www.uic.com.au/wast.htm

  47. Types of Radiation • Alpha radiation • Cannot penetrate the skin • Blocked out by a sheet of paper • Dangerous in the lung • Beta radiation • Can penetrate into the body • Can be blocked out by a sheet of aluminum foil • Gamma radiation • Can go right through the body • Requires several inches of lead or concrete, or a yard or so of water, to block it. • Neutron radiation • Normally found only inside a nuclear reactor http://www.uic.com.au/wast.htm

  48. Measuring Radioactivity • Half-Life • The time for a radioactive source to lose 50% of its radioactivity • For each half-life time period, radioactivity drops by 50% • 1/2; 1/4; 1/8; 1/16; 1/32; 1/64; 1/128; 1/256; … • A half-life of 1 year means that radioactivity drops to <1% of its original intensity in seven years • Intensity vs. half-life • Intense radiation has a short half life, so decays more rapidly

  49. Half-Life Graph