Bio-based Control for Invasive MusselsPrepared for NSF Joint Committee on Drinking Water Additives4 December 2013
Marrone Bio Innovations:Delivering the Next Generation in Biopesticides We discover, develop, and marketeffective and environmentally responsiblebio-based pest management productsfor agriculture and water applications ------------------------------------------------------------- Founded in 2006 by Dr. Pamela Marrone Currently employ 110+ employees Headquartered in Davis, CA
Invasive Mussels Cause $ Billions in Economic & Environmental Damage
Zequanox: The Industry’s Only Biopesticide for Invasive Mussel Control Environmentally friendly • Derived from soil microbe Pseudomonas fluorescens • Present in all natural water bodies • Used in production of food product (cheese product) and present in yoghurt • High concentrations present in your refrigerator • Composed of 50% dead cells and 50% food-grade inert ingredients EPA-registered, tolerance exempt (residues are not of toxicological concern) • Approved for all food and non-food uses, including uses that result in direct or incidental contact with food, food-contact materials/equipment, irrigation and drinking source water
Overview of Manufacturing Steps Manufacture at food grade facilities (some Kosher) Concentration (e.g, centrifuge, fluidized bed) Raw Materials are Batched and Sterilized Fermentation Raw Materials Sterile Fermentation QC of Harvest Designed to specifically grow Pf CL 145 QC on concentrated cells QC testing of post batching and sterilization Specifications require food grade Batching with concentrated cells and inert ingredients Spry Drying -Heat kills cells Packaging • QC on final product • Minimally includes; • Pathogen testing • Viable cell count QC on concentrated cells
Zequanox – possible uses in infested systems • Storage and stabilization basins (NSF60 often required) • Large transmission systems - canals, pipelines (NSF60 required) • Reservoirs and Lakes (NSF60 often required) • No EPA water quality limit for drinking water (e.g. copper) • Will not kill stocked fish • Intake structures (NSF60 required) • Will not produce disinfection by-products in raw water • Will not contribute residual copper to raw water X Not labeled or intended for direct application to treated drinking water (zebra mussels do not occur in chlorinated systems) X Can not be combined with other chemical treatments
Mussel Control Treatment Alternatives • Chemical • Oxidation chemicals – chlorine, ozone, KMnO4 • Chlorine frequently used in long conveyance structures (MWD of Southern California) and long intake channels (miles) • Non-oxidizing chemicals • KCl • One use in a non-drinking water source • Amine compounds • Copper sulfate • Use in a few isolated situations for mussel control in source waters (legally) • Non-chemical • Zequanox
Possible Resolutions • Amend the standard to accommodate microbial products that are intentionally added to water • Approve NSF60 cert. of Zequanox on the grounds that it is not a (live) microbial product • Other options?