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5G- Fifth Generation Mobile

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  1. 5G- Fifth Generation Mobile Presentation by Dr. N. Albert Singh

  2. 5G-Fifth Generation Mobile • There are lots of improvements from 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G to 5G in the world of telecommunications. • The new coming 5G technology will be available in the market in affordable rates, high peak future and much reliability than its preceding technologies. • A new revolution of 5G technology is about to begin because 5G technology going to give tough competition to normal computer and laptops whose marketplace value will be affected. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  3. R & D of Mobile Technologies • The development of the 2G (GSM) and 3G (IMT-2000 and UMTS) standards took about 10 years from the official start of the R&D projects, and development of 4G systems started in 2001 or 2002.  • However, still no transnational 5G development projects have officially been launched, and some industry representatives have expressed scepticism towards 5G. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  4. Implementation and R&D of 5G • According to sources, 5G family of ITU standards to be implemented would likely be around the year 2020. • In 2008, the Korean IT R&D program of "5G mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation" was formed. • In 8 October 2012, the UK's University of Surrey secured £35M for new 5G research centre, joint funded between the British government's UK Research Partnership Investment Fund (UKRPIF) and a consortium of key international mobile operators and infrastructure providers –including Huawei, Samsung, Telefonica Europe, Fujitsu Laboratories Europe, Rohde & Schwarz, and Aircom International– it will offer testing facilities to mobile operators keen to develop a mobile standard that uses less energy and radio spectrum whilst delivering faster than current 4G speeds, with aspirations for the new technology to be ready within a decade. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  5. 5G-Planned Expectations • Around 1Gbps data rate in mobility speed of 350Km/hr or above. • More secure; better cognitive radio/SDR Security. • Multiple concurrent data transfer paths. • Higher system level spectral efficiency. • Lower outage probability; better coverage and high data rates available at cell edge. • Worldwide wireless web (WWWW), wireless-based web applications that include full multimedia capability beyond 4G speeds. • More applications combined with artificial intelligent (AI) as human life will be surrounded by artificial sensors which could be communicating with mobile phones. • Lower battery consumption. • Not harmful to human health. • Cheaper traffic fees due to low infrastructure deployment costs. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  6. General Features of 5G • 5G mobile technology will change the means to use Mobile phones with very high bandwidth. • With the coming out of 5G Mobile phone alike to PDA now your whole office in your finger tips or in your phone. • 5G technology has extraordinary data capabilities and has ability to tie together unrestricted call volumes and infinite data broadcast within latest mobile operating system. • 5G Technologies have an extraordinary capability to support Software and Consultancy. The Router and switch technology used in 5G network providing high bandwidth connectivity. • The 5G technology distributes internet access to nodes within the building and can be deployed with union of wired or wireless network connections.(now wired Leased Line circuits/ WiFi are provided) Dr. N. Albert Singh

  7. Features of 5G Technology • 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65,000 connections. • The uploading and downloading speed of 5G technology touching the peak. • The 5G technology network offering enhanced and available connectivity just about the world • 5G technology offer unparalleled consistency. • The 5G technology also support virtual private network. • The new 5G technology will take all delivery service out of business prospect • The remote diagnostics also a great feature of 5G technology. • Through remote management offered by 5G technology a user can get better and fast solution. • 5G technology offer high resolution for crazy cell phone user and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping. • The advanced billing interfaces of 5G technology makes it more attractive and effective. • 5G technology also providing subscriber supervision tools for fast action. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  8. Existing Mobile Technologies A new mobile generation has appeared every 10th year since • The first 1G system (NMT) was introduced in 1981. • The 2G (GSM) system that started to roll out in 1992. • 3G (W-CDMA), which appeared in 2001. • 4G standards LTE-Advanced and WiMAX 2.0 fulfilling the IMT-Advanced requirements that were ratified in 2011. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  9. Technology Progression Dr. N. Albert Singh

  10. Evolution WISDOM—Wireless Innovative System for Dynamic Operating Megacommunications concept Dr. N. Albert Singh

  11. Evolution of 7G Dr. N. Albert Singh

  12. 5G-In Brief • 5G is to be a new technology that will provide all the possible applications, by using only one universal device, and interconnecting most of the already existing communication infrastructures. • The 5G terminals will be a reconfigurable multimode and cognitive radio- enabled. • It will have software defined radio modulation schemes. All the required reconfigurable software should be downloaded from the Internet on the run. • The 5G mobile networks will focus on the development of the user terminals where the terminals will have access to different wireless technologies at the same time and will combine different flows from different technologies. • Besides, the terminal will make the final choice among different wireless/mobile access network providers for a given service. • The 5G core is to be a Re-configurable, Multi-Technology Core. • The core could be a convergence of new technologies such as nanotechnology, cloud Computing and cognitive Radio, Artificial Intelligence and based on All IP Platform. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  13. Key Technical concepts in 5G Pervasive networks providing ubiquitous computing: • The user can simultaneously be connected to several wireless access technologies and seamlessly move between them (i.e Media independent handover or vertical handover, IEEE 802.21) • These access technologies can be 2.5G, 3G, 4G, or 5G mobile networks, Wi-Fi, WPAN, or any other future access technology. • In 5G, the concept may be further developed into multiple concurrent data transfer paths. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  14. Handover Dr. N. Albert Singh

  15. Seamless Mobility Dr. N. Albert Singh

  16. Key Technical concepts in 5G- contd.. Cognitive radio technology, also known as smart-radio: • Spectrum is a scarce resource for the mobile-communication industry. • Historically, up until now, the mobile industry has relied on spectrum dedicated for mobile communication and licensed to a certain operator. • Allowing different radio technologies to share the same spectrum efficiently by adaptively finding unused spectrum and adapting the transmission scheme to the requirements of the technologies currently sharing the spectrum. • This dynamic radio resource management is achieved in a distributed fashion, and relies on software-defined radio. • IEEE 802.22 standard for Wireless Regional Area Networks. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  17. Spectrum Management Dr. N. Albert Singh

  18. Cognitive Radio Concept Dr. N. Albert Singh

  19. Software Defined Radio (SDR)-Reconfigurability enabler • A software-defined radio system, or SDR, is a radio communication system where components that have been typically implemented in hardware (e.g. mixers, filters, amplifiers, modulators/demodulators, detectors, etc.) are instead implemented by means of software on a personal computer or embedded system. • Software Defined Radio (SDR) benefits from today’s high processing power to develop multiband, multi-standard base stations and terminals. Although in future the terminals will adapt the air interface to the available radio access technology, at present this is done by the infrastructure. Several infrastructure gains are expected from SDR. • For example, to increase network capacity at a specific time (e.g. during festivals or sport events), an operator will reconfigure its network adding several modems at a given Base Transceiver Station (BTS). SDR makes this reconfiguration easy. • In the context of the expected 5G systems, SDR will become an enabler for terminal and network reconfigurability through software download. • For manufacturer, this can be a powerful aid to providing multi-standard, multi-band equipment with reduced development effort and costs. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  20. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  21. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  22. SDR in MATLAB Software Dr. N. Albert Singh

  23. Software Defined Radio Dr. N. Albert Singh

  24. Key Technical concepts in 5G- contd.. Group cooperative relay: • A major issue in beyond 4G systems is to make the high bit rates available in a larger portion of the cell, especially to users in an exposed position in between several base stations. • In current 5G research, this issue is addressed by cellular repeaters and macro-diversity techniques, also known as group cooperative relay, as well as by beam division multiple access. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  25. Reconfigurable-Interoperability • Seamless interoperability among heterogeneous networks represents the corner stone for the success of 5G systems with different evolving access technologies. • A novel solution that ensures interoperability between several types of wireless access network is given by the developing IEEE 802.21 standard The IEEE 802.21 is focused on handover facilitation between different wireless networks in heterogeneous environments regardless of the type of medium. • IEEE 802.21 may be the key enabler for seamless vertical handover and transparent roaming in heterogeneous networks. IEEE 802.21 standard is expected to make a major contribution towards the reconfigurable interoperability aspect of 5G wireless and cellular communications systems. • The standard names this type of vertical handover as Media Independent Handover (MIH). The goal of IEEE 802.21 is to ease the mobile nodes’ usage by providing uninterrupted handover in heterogeneous networks. The heart of the 802.21 framework is the Media Independent Handover Function (MIHF), responsible for communication with different terminals, networks and remote MIHFs, which will have to be implemented in every IEEE 802.21 compatible device (in either hardware or software). Dr. N. Albert Singh

  26. Advantages of Reconfigurable-Interoperability • Load balancing and sharing between different spatially coexisting wireless networks. • Efficient spectrum sharing. • Congestion control. • The reconfigurable interoperability offers network providers with a possibility to choose, with minimal investments, between alternative wireless access networks. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  27. Adaptive Coupling-Reconfigurable Integration • Adaptive coupling is a new proposed mechanism that adaptively changes coupling level from open, loose to tight and even very tight according to networks’ load status and delay constraints. • Depending on the level of integration that is required between available radio access technologies, a variety of approaches can be taken for effective interoperability. • However, a high level of integration requires considerable effort in the definition of interfaces and mechanisms able to support the necessary exchange of data and signalling between different radio access networks. • On the one hand, if the integration between different technologies is tight, the provisioning of the service is more efficient and network selection as well as the vertical handover process is faster. • Moreover, tight coupling suffers from potential of load congestion when one network full load is immersed on the other. • On the other hand, if the integration between different technologies is loose, the delay of handover process is significant. • On the positive side, loose coupling allows for the flexibility and independence of implementing individually different mechanisms within each network. Besides, it eases the gradual deployment of one network with no or little modification on the other network(s). Dr. N. Albert Singh

  28. Network Energy Efficiency • Low energy consumption for mobile terminals has been an important requirement since the emergence of hand-held terminals roughly 25 years ago. • The driving force has been the reduction in battery size and improved battery time. • Today, reduced energy consumption also in the radio access network is receiving increased attention; the cost of energy is a far from negligible part of the overall operational cost for the operator. • Also Nanotechnology based batteries will have small size, more power and less weight. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  29. NanoTechnology • Nanotechnology is the application of nanoscience to control process on nanometer scale; between 0.1 and 100nm.The field is also known as molecular nanotechnology (MNT) where MNT deals with control of the structure of matter based on atom-by-atom and molecule by molecule engineering. • Nanotechnology is considered as the next industrial revolution, and the telecommunications industry will be radically transformed by it in a few years. • As the future applications will require more memory and computing power to offer higher data rates, current technologies can not resolve these challenges. Fortunately, nanotechnology could provide effective solutions for power efficient computing, sensing, memory enlargement, and human machine Interaction. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  30. NanoTechnology—contd.. • Nanotechnology will have considerable impacts on both mobile device as well as core network as follows: • The mobile device has become more than a communication device in modern world; computation and communication are ready to serve the user in an intelligent way. • Mobile devices together with the intelligence, embedded in human environments, will create a new platform that enables ubiquitous sensing, computing, and communication. • With nanotechnology mobile phones can act as intelligent sensors that have applications in many industries, among them transportation, communications, medicine and safety. • The core network requires high speed and a reliable capacity to manipulate and interoperate increasing number of heterogeneous access technologies. • At present, nanotechnologies are used in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Fabrication, introducing new perceptions in DSP designing that increases the overall system speed & capacity. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  31. Key concepts in 5G –contd.. • Dynamic Adhoc Wireless Networks (DAWN), essentially identical to Mobile adhoc network (MANET), Wireless mesh network (WMN) or wireless grids, combined with smart antennas, cooperative diversity and flexible modulation. • Vandermonde-subspace frequency division multiplexing (VFDM): A modulation scheme to allow the co-existence of macro-cells and cognitive radio small-cells in a two-tiered LTE/4G network. • IPv6, where a visiting care-of mobile IP address is assigned according to location and connected network. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  32. Key concepts in 5G –contd.. • One unified global standard. • Real wireless world with no more limitation with access and zone issues. • User centric (or cell phone developer initiated) network concept instead of operator-initiated (as in 1G) or system developer initiated (as in 2G, 3G and 4G) standards. • World wide wireless web (WWWW), i.e. comprehensive wireless-based web applications that include full multimedia capability beyond 4G speeds. • Decision Making with Artificial Intelligence capabilities. • Massive Dense Networks also known as Massive Distributed MIMO providing green flexible small cells 5G Green Dense Small Cells. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  33. All IP Network • The All-IP Network (AIPN) is an evolution of the 3GPP system to fulfil the increasing demands of the cellular communications market. • It is a common platform valid for all sorts of radio access technologies. AIPN focused primarily on the enhancements of packet switched technology but now it provides a continued evolution and optimization in terms of both performance and cost. • The key benefits of AIPN architecture includes a variety of different access systems’ provision, lower costs, universal seamless access, increased user-satisfaction and reduced system latency. • But with the advantages of IP come some dangers: as data flow more freely and the internet is open not only to developers but also to all manner of criminals and viruses, developers and operators face new security challenges which should be solved properly. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  34. Cloud computing • Cloud computing is a technology that uses the internet and central remote server to maintain data and applications. • “Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction…”. • Hence, in 5G networks this central remote server could be a content provider. • Cloud computing allows consumers and business to use applications without installation and access their personal files at any computer with internet access. • The same concept is going to be used in multi-core technology where the user tries to access his private account form a global content provider through cloud computing. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  35. Artificial Intelligence • Fuzzy Logic- Intelligent decision making like human brain activity. • Artificial Neural Network- Stimulus activity similar to a biological neuron. An adaptive intelligent activity. • Evolutionary Algorithms for optimization- Mainly used for effective dynamic channel assignment. • Artificial Intelligence in 5G applied for efficient hand over, network optimisation, prediction of user, adaptive coupling, interoperability decision, etc., Dr. N. Albert Singh

  36. 5G- Proposed Architecture Dr. N. Albert Singh

  37. Summary • Cognitive Radio technology is the first step to uniform the different communications technologies, i.e. to obtain the interoperability between the different network types, and the “CR based 5G” represents a successful combination which will provide us the real 5G network. • Infrastructure gains are expected from Software Define Radio. • Interoperability-Mobility support (vertical or internetwork Handover) - once a network has been selected, the user is subject to change the initially selected network according to various conditions. • Cloud Computing • NanoTechnology • Artificial Intelligence in Decision Making. Dr. N. Albert Singh

  38. e.mail: albertsingh@rediffmail.com, albertsingh@bsnl.co.in Dr. N. Albert Singh