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第二章 下一代网络与 MPLS Chapter 2 Next Generation Network and MPLS

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  1. 第二章 下一代网络与MPLSChapter 2 Next Generation Network and MPLS 电控学院 电子工程学科部 司鹏搏 综合楼825室 sipengbo@bjut.edu.cn

  2. Main Contents • Next Generation Network • Background of Next Generation Network (NGN) • Definition of NGN • Characteristics of NGN • Architectures of NGN • 3GPP • ETSI • With Softswitch • MPLS

  3. Main Contents • Next Generation Network • MPLS • Need for MPLS • MPLS Architecture • Label Switching • MPLS Basics • MPLS Labels • Label Forwarding • Label Distribution and Management • MPLS Forwarding Table • LSP Loop Detection • LDP

  4. Main Contents • Next Generation Network • Background of Next Generation Network (NGN) • Definition of NGN • Characteristics of NGN • Architectures of NGN • 3GPP • ETSI • With Softswitch • MPLS

  5. Background of NGN • Limited Capacity of Traditional Internet • Simple services are not sufficient • Voice, text message, e-mail • Non-open system • Different networks are independent • Old technologies are not ready for evolution • Why Next Generation Network? • The fast growing of data service requirement • The slow growing/decreasing of voice service • The increasingly cut-throat competition • The rapid development of new technologies

  6. Non-Interactive Multimedia Video Music Ring tone Movies Person-to-Content known usability patterns Photos Internet Streaming Interactive Multimedia Text/Pictures Download MultimediaContent HTTP Video SMS/MMS Active phonebook Person-to-Person dominates traffic growth Image Social Networking Text P2P Calls Voice Presence Push-To-Talk MMS SMS Voice

  7. Societal and Business trends • Internet is becoming a major enabler of communications • Consumers are embracing computing, mobile and digital technology in their everyday life • Evolution of Business models require increased levels of personal mobility • Convergence • Converged devices (Mobile, WLAN, Internet etc.)  Connectivity • Converged services  Ease of use • Converged networks  Reliability, Security, Reduced OPEX/CAPEX • Converged business models  Increased margins, Avoidance of twin pitfalls risk • Access Technology Enhancements • HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) – evolved WCDMA • OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) – 3GPP LTE, WiMAX, MBWA, ADSL/VDSL, DVB-T/H etc. • Spatial Processing – multi-antennas Base Stations supporting advanced spatial processing

  8. Main Contents • Next Generation Network • Background of Next Generation Network (NGN) • Definition of NGN • Characteristics of NGN • Architectures of NGN • 3GPP • ETSI • With Softswitch • MPLS

  9. Definition of NGN • By ITU-T • In Feb. 3 - 12, 2004, ITU-T SG13 • A Next Generation Network is a packet-based network able to provide telecommunication services, able to make use of multiple broadband, QoS-enabled transport technologies and in which service-related functions are independent from underlying transport-related technologies. • It offers unrestricted access by users to different service providers. • It supports generalized mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of services to users.

  10. Definition of NGN NGN CONCEPT

  11. Main Contents • Next Generation Network • Background of Next Generation Network (NGN) • Definition of NGN • Characteristics of NGN • Architectures of NGN • 3GPP • ETSI • With Softswitch • MPLS

  12. Characteristics of NGN Packet-based transfer Separation of control functions Decoupling of service provision Support for a wide range of services Broadband capabilities with end-to-end QoS Interworking via open interfaces Generalized mobility

  13. Characteristics of NGN • Unrestricted access • A variety of identification schemes • Unified service characteristics • Converged services between Fixed/Mobile • Independence of service-related functions • Support of multiple RATs • Compliant with all regulatory requirements

  14. Main Contents • Next Generation Network • Background of Next Generation Network (NGN) • Definition of NGN • Characteristics of NGN • Architectures of NGN • 3GPP • ETSI • With Softswitch • MPLS

  15. Architecture Evolution Traditional Architecture

  16. Architecture Evolution

  17. Architecture Evolution

  18. Service-based Pol./Reg. Pol. C Reg. c Pol. A Reg. a Pol. B Reg. b Pol. Reg. NGN Voice Internet Video MM Phone Internet M-Ph IP (Future Packet ?) Platform Pol. X Reg. x PSTN IP-Net Mobile xDSL/Optic based Fixed-Mobile Resource-based Pol./Reg. Current PolicyRegulation Environment (Vertical) New PolicyRegulation Environment (Horizontal) Architecture Evolution

  19. Architecture Evolution

  20. Architecture Evolution

  21. The Players of NGN ITU-T NGN FG ATIS NGN FG ETSI TISPAN1 3GPP

  22. Main Contents • Next Generation Network • Background of Next Generation Network (NGN) • Definition of NGN • Characteristics of NGN • Architectures of NGN • 3GPP • ETSI • With Softswitch • MPLS

  23. 3GPP Architecture of NGN with IMS

  24. 3GPP Architecture of NGN with IMS • IMS is an open IP-based architecture using the Client-Server Network Computing model • 3GPP originally specified IMS to enable real-time multimedia services over the IP bearer, in GSM and WCDMA networks. • 3GPP2 specified the MMD architecture for CDMA2000 networks based on IMS. 3GPP2 requirements are part of Common IMS in IMS release 8. • The xDSL access, specified by TISPAN, is integrated into IMS. • The cable access specified by CableLabs in PacketCable 2.0 is part of IMS release 8. • Interworking with WLAN was specified in IMS release 6, while the mobility with WiMAX has been addressed in EPC specifications. • If IMS is not used: • Multimedia communication at best effort • Service roaming can be difficult to implement • Provisioning and charging are service specific • Compliance with LI requirements can be an issue

  25. Main Contents • Next Generation Network • Background of Next Generation Network (NGN) • Definition of NGN • Characteristics of NGN • Architectures of NGN • 3GPP • ETSI • With Softswitch • MPLS

  26. ETSI TISPAN NGN Architecture

  27. NGN Architecture Principles • A Layered Approach Including • A transport layer, including functional entities that do transport routing • A service layer, including functional entities that provide services • A Sub-System Oriented Approach Enabling • The addition of new subsystems over the time to cover new demands and service classes • To import (and adapt) subsystems from other standardization bodies • Flexibility to adjust a subsystem architecture with no or limited impact on other subsystems

  28. NGN Architecture Principles • IP Connectivity is Provided Using Two Sub-Systems: • Network Attachment Subsystem (NASS) • Resource and Admission Control Subsystem (RACS) • First Service-Oriented Sub-Systems Include • the 3GPP IMS, a PSTN/ISDN Simulation Sub-system • a PSTN/ISDN Emulation Subsystem (PES) • Future Service-Oriented Sub-Systems may Include • A streaming subsystem • A TV Broadcasting subsystem

  29. Common Components • Common components are functions that are used by more than a subsystem • USPF: User Profile Server Function • Service-level user identification, numbering, and addressing information • Service-level user security information • Service-level user location information • Service-level user profile storage • The IMS part of the USPF is similar to the 3GPP HSS without the HLR/AUC

  30. Common Components • ASF: Application Server Function • Offers services • Two types of ASFs: • Type 1: may interact with RACS for resource control purposes • Type 2: relay on the control subsystem. • Type 2 is equivalent to the Application Server defined by 3GPP IMS • SLF: Subscription Locator Function • Helps locating the USPF of a given user • Like the SLF defined by 3GPP IMS

  31. Common Components • Charging Functions • Data collection functions and mediation functions to the billing systems • Both on-line and off-line charging • IWF: Interworking Function • Between different SIP profiles • Between SIP and H.323 • IBCF: Interconnection Border Control Function • Controls an operator’s boundary • Interacts with RACS • Inserts IWF when appropriate • Screening of signaling based on source/destination addresses

  32. Transfer Functions

  33. Transfer Functions • BGF: Border Gateway Function • Interface between two IP transport domains • Open/close gates, packet marking, resource allocation, bandwidth reservation, NAPT, NAT traversal, incoming traffic policing, usage metering, IPv4/IPv6 interworking, topology hiding • Three types of BGF: • A-BGF (Access-BGF): located in between access and core network, at the access network side • C-BGF (Core-BGF): located in between access and core network, at the core network side • I-BGF (Interconnection-BGF): located in between two core networks

  34. Transfer Functions • L2TF: Layer 2 Termination Function • Terminates Layer 2, e.g., PPP or DSLAM • ARF: Access Relay Function • Relay between the CPE and the NASS • Located in the access network • Resource reservation and admission control • SGF: Signaling Gateway Function • Conversion of SS7 protocols to IP control protocols (e.g., SIP) • SS7 screening of MTP and SCCP parameters

  35. Transfer Functions • MGF: Media Gateway Function • Media mapping and transcoding between IP and CS networks • Three types of MGF: • R-MGF Residential MGF: located in the customer premises • A-MGF Access MGF: located in the access or core network • T-MGF Trunking: MGF located in the boundary of the core network and PSTN/ISDN network • MRFP: Media Resource Function Processor • Multimedia conferences, media sourcing, IVR capabilities, media content analysis

  36. RACS Functionality • Support for Two Types of QoS: • Guaranteed QoS: resources are reserved • Support for Relative QoS: diffserv marking • Service Based Local Policy Control: authorization of QoS requests and definition of the polices to be enforced by the bearer service network elements. • Resource reservation • Support for two mechanisms • Application Function (AF)-initiated • CPE-initiated (Authorization token a la 3GPP). • QoS support over multiple access networks (e.g. ADSL and GPRS) and CPE types.

  37. RACS Functionality • Admission Control: Apply admission control to resource reservation requests • Based on knowledge of transport resource availability over the “last-mile access” and aggregation segments of the access network • NAPT/ Gate Control: controls near-end and far-end NAPT and FW functions, when required, between: • two core TISPAN NGN networks or, • at the border between core and access TISPAN NGN networks

  38. RACS Architecture

  39. RACS Architecture • SPDF: Service-based Policy Decision Function • Provides to AF a single point of contact • Authorization decision for QoS resource • A-RACF: Access Resource and Admission Control Function • Located in the access network • Resource reservation and admission control • In Guaranteed QoS mode, it sets L2/L3 QoS policies in RCEF • In Relative QoS mode, it sets dynamically the diffservQoS parameters in RCEF

  40. RACS Architecture • C-BGF: Core Border Gateway Function • Essentially, an edge router • Located at the border of networks (access/core – core/core) • NAPT, Gate Control, packet marking, usage metering, policing enforcement function • SPDF controls the gates of the C-BGF based on a 5-tuple (source and destination IP addr., source and destination port numbers, protocol) • RCEF: Resource Control Enforcement Function • Performs policy enforcement under the control of the A-RACF • Located in the access network • Gate control, packet marking, policing • A-RACF controls the gates of the RCEF based on a 5-tuple (source and destination IP addr., source and destination port numbers, protocol)

  41. RACS Architecture • L2TF: Layer 2 Termination Functions • Layer 2 (e.g., PPP, ATM) is terminated here • Authorization decision for QoS resource • AF: Application Function • Officially, not part of RACS. Just a RACS user • Requests bearers resources, gest informed when resources are reserved and released • It is specific of the application. E.g., P-CSCF in IMS

  42. NASS Functionality • Dynamic provision of IP address and other user equipment configuration parameters (e.g., using DHCP) • User authentication, prior or during the IP address allocation procedure • User authentication based on user network profile • Based on PPP, IEEE 802.11X or IETF PANA

  43. NASS Functionality • Line authentication based on Layer 2 line identification • Location management (e.g. for emergency call, …) • Customer Premises Equipment configuration • The NASS can be distributed between a visited and a home network • Allows nomadicity and roaming • P-CSCF announcement

  44. NASS Architecture

  45. NASS Architecture • Network Address Configuration Function (NACF): • IP address allocation to the CPE • Distribution of other network configuration parameters such as address of DNS server(s), address of signaling proxies for specific protocols (e.g., P-CSCF) • Typically implemented as RADIUS servers or DHCP servers • Access Management Function (AMF): • Translates network access signaling between CPE and NACF/UAAF • Forwards requests to he UAAF to authenticate the user, authorize/deny network access, and retrieve user-specific access configuration parameters • Typically implemented as RADIUS client if the NACF is a RADIUS server.