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The OSI Model & Protocols. Monday, December 1, 2014. The OSI Model. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). Specifies how computer networking devices communicate with each other. The OSI Model – Standards. Networks are made up of components manufactured by many companies.

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The osi model protocols

The OSI Model & Protocols

Monday, December 1, 2014

The osi model
The OSI Model

  • Open Systems Interconnection (OSI).

  • Specifies how computer networking devices communicate with each other.

The osi model standards
The OSI Model – Standards

  • Networks are made up of components manufactured by many companies.

  • In order for the network to function properly, these components must be able to communicate with each other.

  • Most manufacturers follow industry standards so that their products will work with those from other companies.

The iso

  • International Standardization Organization.

  • Develops product standards for the computer industry.

  • Coordinates the activities of other standards organizations.

  • ISO’s main objective is to allow networks to work efficiently.

  • The ISO developed the OSI Model.

The osi model1
The OSI Model

  • A set of guidelines for the entire communication process.

  • Also specifies how applications and devices should work in order to communicate with each other.


  • Seven layers in the OSI model.

  • Each is responsible for one particular aspect of the communication process.

  • One layer for how information is addressed from one computer to another.

  • Another layer for error checking.

Ensuring compatibility
Ensuring Compatibility

  • Before OSI, no standardization existed for the exchange of information on a network.

  • Devices were developed with no thought to how they’d work with other products.

  • By following the OSI model, companies ensure their products can be used on a network with other companies’ products.

The seven osi model layers
The Seven OSI Model Layers

  • Application

  • Presentation

  • Session

  • Transport

  • Network

  • Data Link

  • Physical

Application layer
Application Layer

  • Handles the exchange of information between the programs running on a computer and other network services

  • Example: a database or print server

Presentation layer
Presentation Layer

  • Formats information so that a software application can read the information.

Session layer
Session Layer

  • Handles how two devices communicate.

  • Handles how two computers on the network communicate.

Transport layer
Transport Layer

  • Corrects transmission errors.

  • Ensures that information is delivered reliably.

Network layer
Network Layer

  • Identifies computers on a network.

  • Determines how to direct information transferring over a network.

Data link layer
Data Link Layer

  • Groups data into sets to prepare the data for transfer over the network.

  • “Packets”

Physical layer
Physical Layer

  • Defines how a transmission medium (cable, etc.) attaches to the computer.

  • Also specifies how electrical information transfers on the transmission medium.


  • Before two computers can transfer information over a network, they must communicate.

  • Protocols are the rules that allow them to do that.


  • Hardware or software components that carry out the OSI model guidelines for transferring information over the network.

  • May be one component or a collection of components that carry out a task.

Protocol stacks
Protocol Stacks

  • Also known as a protocol suite.

  • Made up of multiple protocols used to exchange information.

  • One might specify how NIC’s might communicate.

  • Another might specify how computers read information from the NIC.


  • A section of a protocol stack that’s responsible for one aspect of information transfer.

  • Some are capable of performing more than one function, so these layers do not necessarily correspond to the OSI Model layers.


  • All computers on a network have to have the same protocols in order to communicate.

  • A layer on the protocol stack on one computer has to be able to communicate with the same layer on the protocol stack on another.


  • A network device designed to use an accepted protocol can communicate effectively with any other device using the same protocol.

  • The OSI Model & Protocol standards ensure this compatibility.

Ipx spx protocols
IPX/SPX Protocols

  • Combine to make the protocol suite that is used to transfer information on networks powered by Netware

The osi model protocols

  • Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)

  • Derived from a protocol developed by Xerox Corporation.

  • Used to transfer information between devices located on different networks and keep track of the locations of network devices in relation to other devices.

  • When IPX transfers data, it does not monitor the transmission or check the reliability of the data.

The osi model protocols

  • Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX)

  • An extension of the IPX protocol.

  • Transfers information, but unlike IPX, SPX makes a connection between two network devices and monitors the transmission.

  • It also ensures that the data has no errors.

Ipx spx popular
IPX/SPX – Popular

  • Because of the popularity of Novell Netware, many manufacturers make their products support the IPX/SPX protocols.

Ipx spx tunneling
IPX/SPX – Tunneling

  • Describes the process of using a protocol to transfer data through a different kind of network.

  • IPX/SPX protocols support IP tunneling, so information can be transferred between NetWare networks using a TCP/IP network or the Internet.

  • The information and IPX/SPX protocols are bundled within the TCP/IP protocol suite.

  • When it reaches its destination, the TCP/IP protocols are removed.

A little background on tcp ip
A Little Background on TCP/IP

  • TCP/IP is designed to transfer bundled information (packets) without any concern for what’s in the packet.

  • TCP/IP doesn’t care what’s in the packet and doesn’t care what operating system is in use.

  • So, you can bundle the IPX/SPX and send it through TCP/IP without the IP affecting the data.

  • TCP/IP ignores the contents of the packet just as a postal delivery ignores the contents of a letter she delivers.

Ipx spx ports
IPX/SPX – Ports

  • A location in memory used by a program.

  • Ports are virtual locations and exist only when the computer is running.

  • The IPX/SPX protocols use ports to indicate where information must be delivered in order to reach the appropriate program.

Netbeui protocol
NetBEUI Protocol

  • NetBIOS Extended User Interface.

  • A network protocol used in small Microsoft-based networks.

  • For example, a network of computers running Windows 95 or 98.


  • Network Basic Input/Output System

  • Developed by IBM as a way of allowing computers to communicate with each other on a network.

  • NetBEUI protocol developed to improve upon NetBIOS to make it more efficient.

Netbeui performance
NetBEUI - Performance

  • Small and efficient, the NetBEUI protocol does not require a lot of computer resources, such as memory or processing power.

  • It can transfer information on a network much faster than other protocols.

  • However, it’s not used on wide area networks.

Netbeui microsoft
NetBEUI – Microsoft

  • Found almost exclusively in networks based on products by Microsoft.

  • All Microsoft products that connect to a network use the NetBEUI protocol.

Netbeui configuration
NetBEUI – Configuration

  • Quite simple to set up.

  • When configuring a network computer using NetBEUI protocol, the administrator must give the computer a unique name to identify it on the network.

  • The administrator also has to assign the computer to a workgroup, which will allow the computer to access a predetermined set of network resources.

Netbeui non routable protocol
NetBEUI – Non-routable Protocol

  • The major disadvantage in using the NetBEUI protocol is that it cannot be used on a large network.

  • Many large networks use routers (we’ve talked about routers already) to link parts of the network.

  • Unfortunately, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol, which means that it cannot pass through network routers.

Tcp ip protocols
TCP/IP Protocols

  • A collection, or stack, of protocols used to allow communication between networks with different types of computer systems.

  • TCP/IP is the set of protocols used on the Internet.

Tcp ip development
TCP/IP – Development

  • Originally developed in the late 1960’s in response to the needs of the U. S. Department of Defense.

  • Developed by Vinton Cert and Robert Kahn.

  • Has been available for many years.

  • Repeatedly tested and improved.

  • Most of the ones used today to connect computers are the ones developed 30 years ago.

Tcp ip popularity
TCP/IP – Popularity

  • Quickly became popular because the companies that supplied the D.O.D. had to make their products support TCP/IP.

  • As a result, TCP/IP is very popular and many companies use it to transfer information.

  • The widespread growth of the Internet is also a factor in the popularity of TCP/IP.

  • The fact that it works and works well played a role, too, I’m sure.

Tcp ip reroute
TCP/IP – Reroute

  • Designed to make sure a collection of networked computers would withstand a major disruption, such as war, that could damage several parts of the network.

  • One of the main benefits of TCP/IP is that it can be used to quickly reroute information around damaged parts of a network.

Tcp ip network types
TCP/IP – Network Types

  • Used on different types of networks, including Ethernet, Token Ring, even networks using modern connections.

  • Almost all networks support TCP/IP.

Tcp ip open standard
TCP/IP – Open Standard

  • A major benefit of TCP/IP – it’s open standard.

  • That means that any company or person can design a device or software program that uses TCP/IP without having to pay a royalty or licensing fee.

Common tcp ip protocols
Common TCP/IP Protocols

  • Many protocols make up TCP/IP.

The osi model protocols

  • Transmission Control Protocol

  • Used to transfer information between two devices on a TCP/IP network.

  • Uses virtual ports to make connections.

  • Monitors the transmission of information.

The osi model protocols

  • Internet Protocol

  • Responsible for the addressing information.

  • Used to direct information to its proper destination on a TCP/IP network.

The osi model protocols

  • File Transfer Protocol

  • One of the most widely recognized and used TCP/IP protocols.

  • Used to transfer documents between different types of computers on a TCP/IP network.

  • That’s documents (whole files) as opposed to other information packets.

The osi model protocols

  • HyperText Transfer Protocol

  • Another of the most widely used protocols used on the Internet.

  • Used to transfer information from Web servers to Web browsers.

The osi model protocols

  • User Datagram Protocol

  • Uses virtual ports to transfer information between two applications on a TCP/IP network.

  • Slightly faster than TCP but not as reliable.

The osi model protocols

  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

  • Used to allow communication between network devices and a server that administers IP numbers, called a DHCP server.

The osi model protocols

  • Domain Name Server

  • Used to match Internet computer names to their corresponding IP numbers

  • Allows users to type a computer name such as instead of an IP number such as to access a computer.

The osi model protocols

  • Windows Internet Name Service

  • A protocol used on Microsoft-based TCP/IP networks.

  • A server running WINS can match Microsoft network computer names to IP numbers.

  • This allows computers on the Microsoft network to communicate with other networks and computers that use the TCP/IP suite.