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Writing and Naming Binary Compounds & Hydrates. You will need: A periodic table A list of common polyatomic ions Patience and understanding. Generic Chemical Formulas. MgCl 2. Chemical symbols. Subscript. Binary Compounds.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Writing and Naming

Binary Compounds & Hydrates

You will need:

A periodic table

A list of common polyatomic ions

Patience and understanding

slide2

Generic Chemical Formulas

MgCl2

Chemical symbols

Subscript

slide3

Binary Compounds

A chemical compound consisting of two parts, a CATION (+) and an ANION (-)

Examples:

  • Two elements chemically bonded
  • 2. An element and a polyatomic ion chemically bonded
  • 3. Two polyatomic ions chemically bonded
slide4

Binary Compounds

Have two parts

Left side is the cation

Positively charged

Right side is the anion

Negatively charged

MgCl2

slide5

Hydrates

A hydrate is a binary compound that has water attached to its ions and the water is a PART of the chemical formula.

Naming hydrates uses terms that indicate the number of water molecules.

slide7

Hydrates

CaSO4 • 2 H2O

Calcium sulfate dihydrate

Binary compound

AlO3 • 3 H2O

Aluminum oxide trihydrate

Binary compound

CuSO4 • 5 H2O

Copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate

Binary compound

slide8

Writing Binary Formulas

6 Steps

1. Write chemical symbols for cation and anion

2. Add cation and anion oxidation numbers as superscripts

3. Check to see if oxidation numbers add to zero

4. If yes, leave as written

5. If no, make oxidation numbers subscripts

6. Check for lowest whole number ratio

slide9

Writing Binary Formulas

Write the formula for sodium chloride.

+

-

Na Cl

3

4

1

2

Add cation and anion oxidation numbers as superscripts

Check to see if oxidation numbers add to zero

If yes, leave as written

Write chemical symbols for the cation and anion

slide10

Writing Binary Formulas

Write the formula for magnesium nitride

+2

-3

Mg N

3

2

3

4

5

1

2

slide11

Writing Binary Formulas

Write the formula for hydrogen carbonate

+

-2

H CO3

2

3

4

5

1

2

slide12

Writing Binary Formulas

Write the formula for magnesium phosphate

-3

+2

(

)

Mg PO4

2

3

3

4

5

1

2

slide13

Writing Binary Formulas

For transition metals the oxidation number is given in parentheses, In Roman numerals.

Write the formula for iron (III) oxide.

Fe +3 O -2

Fe2 O3

slide14

Writing Binary Formulas

  • For hydrates, that is, binary compounds with water (hydrate) attached:
  • nickel (II) sulfate hexahydrate
  • Write the formula of the binary compound (first part) using rules 1-4:
        • NiSO4
  • b. Insert a “raised dot” after the binary compound:
  • NiSO4●
  • Use name prefix to note the number of water molecules (hydrates):
          • NiSO4 ●6 H2O
slide16

More Polyatomic Ions

(learn these, too)

slide18

Naming Binary Formulas

Binary Compound = CATION + ANION

First: Get a periodic table and table of common polyatomic ions

Next: Determine the cation and anion in the compound

Then: Note the cation and apply the 5 naming rules IN ORDER

slide19

Naming Binary Formulas

5 Rules that begin with the location or kind of the CATION

Rule 1. For elements in the first two columns of the periodic table

Rule 2. For elements from group 3 up to the staircase

Rule 3. For elements to the right (above) the staircase

Rule 4. For CATIONS that are polyatomic ions

Rule 5. For hydrates

slide20

Naming Binary Formulas – Rule 1

  • For cations (elements) in the first two columns of the periodic
  • table:
  • MgCl2 LiOH
  • Cation: Write the name of the element as the first part of the compound:
        • magnesium lithium
  • b. Anion: Write the name of the element with an ide ending:
  • magnesium chloride
  • Anion: Write the name of the polyatomic ion:
          • lithium hydroxide

or

slide21

Naming Binary Formulas – Rule 2

  • For cations (elements) from the third group of the periodic table up to the “staircase”
  • FeCl2 Cu2SO4
  • Cation: Name of element with Roman Numeral to show oxidation number:
        • iron (II) copper (I)
  • b. Anion: Name the element with an ide ending:
  • iron (II) chloride
  • Anion: Name the polyatomic ion:
          • copper (I) sulfate

Exceptions to rule:

Ag+1 Zn+2

Cd+2 Al+3

(Use Rule 1)

or

slide22

Naming Binary Formulas – Rule 3

  • For cations (elements) to the right (above) the “staircase”
  • CO2 CO N4S3
  • Count the “number” of each element. (C-1, O-2 C-1, O-1N-4, S-3)
  • b. Use prefixes (mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca) to indicate the number of each atom present.
  • Do not use “mono” if there is only one of the first element in the compound.
  • CO2 N4S3
  • CARBON DIOXIDE

CO

TETRANITROGEN TRISULFIDE

CARBON MONOXIDE

slide23

Naming Binary Formulas – Rule 4

  • For cations that are polyatomic ions:
  • NH4Cl NH4OH
  • Cation: Name the polyatomic ion:
        • ammonium ammonium
  • b. Anion: Name the element with an ide ending:
  • ammonium chloride
  • Anion: Name the polyatomic ion:
          • ammonium hydroxide

or

slide24

Naming Binary Formulas – Rule 5

  • For hydrates, that is, binary compounds with water (hydrate) attached:
  • NiSO4● 6 H2O
  • Name of the binary compound (first part) using rules 1-4:
        • nickel (II) sulfate
  • b. Note the number of water molecules (hydrates) by using prefixes:
          • nickel (II) sulfatehexahydrate
slide25

Rest stop!

Inhale and breathe easy!

The next group of slides goes into some detail about oxidation numbers in covalent compounds and in polyatomic ions. For this presentation, a periodic table that shows electronegativities is most helpful.

covalent compounds
Covalent Compounds

Example: phosphate ion

Electronegativity:

2.1

3.5

-2

P O43-

Polyatomic ion with a charge = -3

Since oxygen is the more electronegative element, it will have its normal oxidation number.

covalent compounds1
Covalent Compounds

Example:

  • + 5
  • 8
  • - 3

+5

-2

P O43-

The phosphate ion has a charge of negative three, so the oxidation numbers must add up to the total charge of the ion.

ionic compounds with polyatomics
Ionic Compounds with Polyatomics

Example:

+2

Ca SO4

This is an ionic compound, so the charge of the metal cation is its oxidation number

ionic compounds with polyatomics1
Ionic Compounds with Polyatomics

Example:

+2

Ca SO4

The anion is a polyatomic ion, sulfate, and the charge of sulfate is negative two. So the oxidation numbers of sulfur and oxygen must add to -2

ionic compounds with polyatomics2
Ionic Compounds with Polyatomics

Example:

2.5

3.5

+2

-2

Ca SO4

Oxygen is the more electronegative of the two, so it keeps its normal oxidation number.

ionic compounds with polyatomics3
Ionic Compounds with Polyatomics

Example:

+6

-2

Ca SO4

+2

Sulfur and the four oxygen atoms must add to negative two (the charge of the sulfate anion).

ionic compounds with polyatomics4
Ionic Compounds with Polyatomics

Example:

Pb(OH)4

This is an ionic compound, so the charge of the metal cation is its oxidation number. But this is a transition metal, so we cannot know it from its position on the periodic table.

ionic compounds with polyatomics5
Ionic Compounds with Polyatomics

Example:

+4

-1

Pb(OH)4

But the anion, the hydroxide ion, carries a charge of negative one. All four hydroxides are negative one, but since the compound is neutral, the oxidation number of lead must balance it out.

ionic compounds with polyatomics6
Ionic Compounds with Polyatomics

Example:

3.5

2.1

+4

-2

Pb(OH)4

Within the anion, oxygen is the more electronegative of the two elements, and keeps its normal oxidation number.

ionic compounds with polyatomics7
Ionic Compounds with Polyatomics

Example:

+4

-2

+1

Pb(OH)4

Within the hydroxide ion, the oxygen and hydrogen must add to the charge of the ion, -1