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Chapter 5 Types of Compounds. Ionic Compounds Covalent Compounds. Electronegativity (EN). Def: The strength with which an atom in a bond pulls on e-s. Covalent Bonds (bonds btwn 2 nonmetals). Nonmetals have high electronegativity values (REVIEW) Electrons are shared

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Chapter 5 types of compounds l.jpg
Chapter 5Types of Compounds

  • Ionic Compounds

  • Covalent Compounds

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Electronegativity (EN)

Def: The strength with which an atom in a bond pulls on e-s.

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Covalent Bonds (bonds btwn 2 nonmetals)

  • Nonmetals have high electronegativity values

    (REVIEW)

  • Electrons are shared

    single bond shares 1 pair electrons

    double bond shares 2 pairs electrons

    triple bond shares 3 pairs electrons

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Covalent Bonds

Two nonmetal atoms form a covalent bond because they have less energy (are more stable!) after they bonded

H+H H : H = HH = H2hydrogen molecule

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Learning Check

Indicate whether a bond between the following would be 1) Ionic 2) covalent

____ A. sodium & oxygen

____ B. nitrogen & oxygen

____ C. phosphorus & chlorine

____ D. calcium & sulfur

____ E. chlorine & bromine

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Solution

Indicate whether a bond between the following would be 1) Ionic 2) covalent

1 A. sodium and oxygen

2 B. nitrogen and oxygen

2 C. phosphorus and chlorine

1 D. calcium and sulfur

2 E. chlorine and bromine

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Types of Covalent (Molecular) Cpds

  • Elements that form diatomic molecules

  • Binary covalent compounds

  • Organic compounds/ Hydrocarbon

  • Acids & Bases

  • (Common v. Formal Names)

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Diatomic Elements

Elements that exist as diatomic molecules

are : H2, F2, N2, O2, Cl2, Br2, I2

octets

    

 N  + N  N:::N



triple bond

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Learning Check

Use the name of the element to name a diatomic molecules.

H2 hydrogen

N2 nitrogen

Cl2 _______________

O2 _______________

I2 _______________

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Solution

Use the name of the element to name the following diatomic molecules.

H2 hydrogen

N2 nitrogen

Cl2chlorine

O2oxygen

I2iodine

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Naming Binary Covalent Compounds

Two nonmetals (def of binary covalent)

  • Name each element

  • End the last element in -ide

  • Add prefixes to show how many atoms of each

    • (except when there’s only 1 atom of the 1st element listed)

      Prefixes-(see Table 5.5, p 168 of text)

      mon 1 penta 5

      di 2 hexa 6

      tri 3 hepta 7

      tetra 4 octa 8

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Learning Check

Fill in the blanks to complete the following names of covalent compounds.

CO carbon ______oxide

CO2 carbon _______________

PCl3 phosphorus _______chloride

CCl4 carbon ________chloride

N2O _____nitrogen _____oxide

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Solution

CO carbon monoxide

CO2 carbon dioxide

PCl3 phosphorus trichloride

CCl4 carbon tetrachloride

N2O dinitrogen monoxide

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Learning Check

A. P2O5 1) phosphorus oxide

2) phosphorus pentoxide

3) diphosphorus pentoxide

B. Cl2O71) dichlorine heptoxide

2) dichlorine oxide

3) chlorine heptoxide

C. Cl21) chlorine

2) dichlorine

3) dichloride

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Solution

A. P2O5 3) diphosphorus pentoxide

B. Cl2O71) dichlorine heptoxide

C. Cl21) chlorine

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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Naming Organic Compounds

  • Def: organic compounds contain __ atoms hooked together.

  • (Why do you think this element can hook up with many other atoms, including itself?)


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Hydrocarbons-A Type of Organic Compound

  • Def: hydrocarbons are made of ___ & ___

  • They are named by the number of Carbon atoms a molecule contains.

  • See Table 5.8, p 183


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Table 5.8: Hydrocarbons

CH4 methane

C2H6 ethane

C3H8 propane

C4H10 butane

C5H12 pentane

C6H14 hexane

C7H16 heptane

C8H18 octane

C9H20 nonane

C10H22 decane


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Common v. Formal Names

  • Formal Names follow the rules we have learned for naming compounds.

  • Common Names are ones that don’t follow these rules.

    • Ex: water=


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Frequently Used Common Names

  • Water = H2O

  • Ammonia = NH3

  • Common Acids & Bases


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    Acids & Bases

    (Table 5.7, p 182)

    ACIDS

    Formula Name

    HCl hydrochloric acid

    H2SO4 sulfuric acid

    H3PO4 phosphoric acid

    HNO3 nitric acid

    HC2H3O2 acetic acid (vinegar)


    Table 5 7 cont l.jpg
    Table 5.7 (cont.):

    BASES

    Formula Name

    NaOH sodium hydroxide

    KOH potassium hydroxide

    NH3 ammonia


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    Covalent Bonds in NH3

    Bonding pairs

    H

     

    H: N : H

     

    Lone pair of electrons

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    Allotropes

    • Def: molecules of the same element that differ in structure

    • Ex: Carbon…graphite, charcoal, Buckminsterfullerine (“bucky ball”)

      - see Fig ___ on p ___ of text

    • Ex2: O2 (oxygen) and O3 (ozone)


    Q why do we have to specify the number of atoms of each element in a covalent compound l.jpg
    Q:Why do we have to specify the number of atoms of each element in a covalent compound?

    • A: Atoms of the same elements can combine in different ratios.

    • Ex: C & O

      • CO

      • CO2


    Writing formulas for covalent compounds l.jpg
    Writing Formulas for Covalent Compounds element in a covalent compound?

    1. Identify it as a covalent: containing only nonmetals.

    2. Determine what type of covalent it is:

    diatomic element binary

    hydrocarbon (ends in –ane) acid/base

    3. Reverse the naming process.

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    Naming Ionic Compounds element in a covalent compound?

    • Binary Ionic

    • Ionic Compounds contain-ing Polyatomic Ions.

    • Ionic Cpds containing Transition Metals

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    PLEASE NOTE: element in a covalent compound?

    • IF YOU ARE UNABLE TO IDENTIFY IONIC & COVALENT COMPOUNDS, YOU WILL BE LOST!!!

    • PLEASE SEE ME IMMEDIATELY TO GET CAUGHT UP.

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Ionic bonding electronegativity l.jpg
    Ionic Bonding & Electronegativity element in a covalent compound?

    • Nonmetals have high EN’s.

    • Metals have low EN’s.

      Bonds between a metal & a nonmetal involve transfers of e-s b/c of the big difference in EN!

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    Binary Ionic Compounds element in a covalent compound?

    • Binary= 2 elements

    • Ionic= 1 metal & 1 nonmetal

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    Naming Binary Ionic Compounds element in a covalent compound?

    1. Identify & name the 2 elements in the compound.

    2. Name the cation, which is the given the name of the element.

    3. Name the anion, which is given the name of the element, w/the ending changed to “–ide.”

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Practice naming binary ionic compounds l.jpg
    PRACTICE element in a covalent compound? Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

    1. Na║Cl

    2. Na = “sodium”

    3. Cl = “chloride”

    (full name is “sodium chloride”)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    PRACTICE element in a covalent compound? Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

    1. Li2O

    2 & 3.

    ____║____= ______ ______

    (cation(anion (cation name) (anion name) symbol) symbol)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    More practice naming binary ionic compounds p of i n l.jpg
    MORE PRACTICE element in a covalent compound? Naming Binary Ionic Compounds-p __ of I.N.

    • KF

    • CaF2

    • Al2O3

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    Naming Ionic Compounds w/ element in a covalent compound?Polyatomic Ions

    • DEF: Charged particles containing more than 1 type of atom. Ex: SO42-

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    Naming Ionic Compounds w/ Polyatomic Ions element in a covalent compound?

    • Identify the cation & the anion. (Draw a line between the 2 ions)

    • Name the cation, then the anion (find polyatomics on Table 5.3, p 159 of text). That’s it!

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Practice naming ionic compounds w polyatomic ions l.jpg
    PRACTICE element in a covalent compound? :Naming Ionic Compounds w/ Polyatomic Ions

    EX: Na2SO4

    ____║____= ______ ______

    (cation(anion (cation name) (anion name) symbol) symbol)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    Naming Ionic Compounds w/ element in a covalent compound?Polyatomic Ions

    • Most polyatomic ions are anions.

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    A Couple of Important Exceptions w/Polyatomic Ions element in a covalent compound?

    Important Exception #1: there are 2 cations that contain NO METALS:

    NH4+ (ammonium)

    H3O+ (hydronium)

    (this can be tricky b/c we have always identified ionic compounds because they start with a metal cation.)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    A Couple of Important Exceptions w/Polyatomic Ions element in a covalent compound?

    Important Exception #2: Some anions contain metals.

    Ex: MnO4- = permanganate

    Cr2O72- = dichromate

    (this can be tricky b/c anions are usually a nonmetal)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    Copy Table 5.2 into Notes element in a covalent compound?

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    Naming Ionic Cpds Containing Transition Metals element in a covalent compound?

    Ex: NiO2

    • Determine the total # of negative charges in a unit of the compound:

      Ex: O2- & O2- = 4 total - charges

      2. Determine the charge on the cation that will give you 4 total + charges Ex: Ni4+

      3. Write the cation & anion names. Write cation with the oxidation # written as a Roman numeral in parentheses:

      Ex: nickel (IV) oxide

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Writing formulas for binary ionic compounds l.jpg
    Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds element in a covalent compound?

    1. Identify the ionic charge (“oxidation number”) on the cation & anion.

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds element in a covalent compound?

    ELEMENT OXIDATION #

    • Group 1 1+

    • Group 2 2+

    • Group 13 3+

    • Group 14 4+ or 4-

    • Group 15 3-

    • Group 16 2-

    • Group 17 1-

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Practice predicting oxidation s l.jpg
    Practice Predicting Oxidation #s element in a covalent compound?

    • Li

    • O

    • Mg

    • F

    • B

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds element in a covalent compound?

    2. A compound has NO CHARGE on it, so a formula unit (the smallest ratio of cations to anions) must have equal numbers of + & - charges. (use the LCM)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    Cross-Over Method element in a covalent compound?

    • You can use this to write formulas.

    • Take the charge on the cation and use it as the subscript on the anion

    • Take the charge on the anion and use it as the subscript on the cation

    • Reduce the subscripts, if necessary

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Using the lcm to write ionic formulas l.jpg
    Using the LCM to Write Ionic Formulas element in a covalent compound?

    • Ex: Li & F

    • Ex: Li & O

    • Ex: Al & O

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Answers l.jpg
    ANSWERS element in a covalent compound?

    • LiF

    • Li2O

    • Al2O3

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    Writing Formulas for I.Cpds Containing Polyatomic Ions element in a covalent compound?

    • Determine the cation & anion

    • Determine the oxidation # on each ion. (oxidation #s for polyatomics are found on Table 5.2)

    • Write a balanced formula

      • If there is more than 1 of an ion, use parentheses, then a subscript

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    Writing Formulas for I.Cpds Containing Polyatomic Ions element in a covalent compound?

    • Ex: see Practice Problems, p 162

      3. Write the formula for the compound formed from the following pairs of ions

      a) ammonium & sulfite ions

    • IONS: NH4+&SO3 2-

      NH4+

    • FORMULA: (NH4)2SO3

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    Practice Problems, cont. element in a covalent compound?from p 16 2of text

    3b)

    3c)

    3d)

    4a)

    4b)

    4c)

    4d)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Transition metals l.jpg
    Transition Metals element in a covalent compound?

    • QUESTION: What was strange about the e- configurations of transition metals?

    ANSWER: Their d sublevels overlap with the other sublevels in the next higher main E.L.

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Oxidation s of transition metals l.jpg
    Oxidation #s of Transition Metals element in a covalent compound?

    • The d sublevel e-s are so close to the actual valence e-s, they sometimes act like valence e-s!

    • See Table 5.4 on p 164 of text: Common Ions of Select Transition Metals

    • Ex: Fe 2+ & Fe 3+

    • Write the e- configuration

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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    e- Configuration for Fe element in a covalent compound?

    • Fe=26 e-s

    • 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d6

    • Valence e-s=4s2

    • BUT, some 3d e-s can be lost too!

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Writing formulas for ionic cpds containing transition metals l.jpg
    Writing Formulas for Ionic Cpds containing Transition Metals element in a covalent compound?

    1. Identify the cation & anion

    2. Determine the oxidation #s on the cation & anion

    • The oxidation # of the cation is given in the name ex: Nickel (IV) = Ni4+

    • The Roman numeral is the oxidation#

      3. Write a formula w/ 0 charge.

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Distillation l.jpg
    Distillation element in a covalent compound?

    • Def: process of separating ionic & covalent compounds by heating them till the covalent compound evaporates.

      • The ionic compound remains in the flask

      • The covalent compound can be cooled & collected in a separate container.

      • This process is called distillation


    Learning check58 l.jpg
    Learning Check element in a covalent compound?

    Match each set with the correct name:

    A.Na2CO31) magnesium sulfite

    MgSO32) magnesium sulfate

    MgSO43) sodium carbonate

    B. Ca(HCO3)21) calcium carbonate

    CaCO32) calcium phosphate

    Ca3(PO4)2 3) calcium bicarbonate

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Solution59 l.jpg
    Solution element in a covalent compound?

    A.Na2CO33) sodium carbonate

    MgSO31) magnesium sulfite

    MgSO42) magnesium sulfate

    B. Ca(HCO3)23) calcium bicarbonate

    CaCO31) calcium carbonate

    Ca3(PO4)2 2) calcium phosphate

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Learning check60 l.jpg
    Learning Check element in a covalent compound?

    A. aluminum nitrate

    1) AlNO3 2) Al(NO)3 3) Al(NO3)3

    B. copper(II) nitrate

    1) CuNO3 2) Cu(NO3)2 3) Cu2(NO3)

    C. Iron (III) hydroxide

    1) FeOH 2) Fe3OH 3) Fe(OH)3

    D. Tin(IV) hydroxide

    1) Sn(OH)4 2) Sn(OH)2 3) Sn4(OH)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Solution61 l.jpg
    Solution element in a covalent compound?

    A. aluminum nitrate

    3) Al(NO3)3

    B. copper(II) nitrate

    2) Cu(NO3)2

    C. Iron (III) hydroxide

    3) Fe(OH)3

    D. Tin(IV) hydroxide

    1) Sn(OH)4

    LecturePLUS Timberlake