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Chapter 4. The Human World Sections 1 and 2. Population Growth. 6.2 billion people inhabiting about 30% of the planet’s land Global population is growing rapidly because birthrates have not declined as fast as death rates

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

The Human World

Sections 1 and 2

Population growth
Population Growth

  • 6.2 billion people inhabiting about 30% of the planet’s land

  • Global population is growing rapidly because birthrates have not declined as fast as death rates

    • Death rates have gone down due to improved healthcare, abundance of food, advances in technology and better living conditions.

    • Also seeing a low birth rate

Life expectancy at birth 2005
Life expectancyatbirth: 2005

United Nations Population Division

World population growth is almost entirely concentrated in the world s poorer countries
World Population Growth Is Almost Entirely Concentrated in the World's Poorer Countries.

World Population (in Billions): 1950-2050

Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects, The 2008 Revision.

  • Challenges of Population Growth the World's Poorer Countries.

    • More people=more mouths to feed

    • Some countries will face shortages

    • Populations are unevenly distributed by age

More developed countries have fewer young people, relative to the elderly population

Less developed countries have far more young people relative to elderly
Less Developed Countries Have Far More Young People Relative to Elderly.

Population by Age and Sex, Less Developed Countries: 2009

Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects, The 2008 Revision.

Population growth rate 2000 2005
Population growth rate: 2000-2005 to Elderly.

United Nations Population Division

Population growth rate 2045 2050
Population growth rate: 2045-2050 to Elderly.

United Nations Population Division

Urbanization one square mile/kilometer of land

  • Urbanization: migration of people towards cities

    • Half the world’s population lives in cities

  • Emigrate FROM the country, Immigrate TO the country

Percentage urban in 2005
Percentage urban in 2005 one square mile/kilometer of land

Percentage urban in 2030
Percentage urban in 2030 one square mile/kilometer of land

Global cultures
Global Cultures one square mile/kilometer of land

  • Culture: group of people who share similar beliefs and customs

    • Language, religion, traditions

  • Language: Key element in a culture’s development, allow people to communicate information and experiences

    • Pass on cultural values and traditions

World languages
World Languages one square mile/kilometer of land

  • Religion: important part of culture one square mile/kilometer of land

    • Struggles in religious differences are a source of conflict in many countries

    • Gives people a sense of identity

Social groups and government
Social Groups and Government one square mile/kilometer of land

  • Social Groups: many cultures made up of social classes

    • Groups of people ranked according to ancestry, wealth, education or other criteria

    • Ethnic Group: share common language, history, place of origin or combination of these elements

  • Government: maintains order, provides protection, supplies its people

    • Many different types of governments

World governments
World Governments one square mile/kilometer of land

The arab cultural region
The Arab money!) Cultural Region

Cultural change
Cultural Change money!)

  • Cultural Diffusion: spreading new knowledge and skills from one culture to another

  • Agricultural Revolution: people stopped wandering, started farming, stayed in one place

    • Surplus of food, increased wealth from trade

  • Culture Hearths: early centers of civilization whose ideas and practices spread to surrounding areas

    • Egypt, Iraq, Pakistan, China and Mexico

Culture hearths
Culture Hearths money!)


Primary Culture Hearths of the World

Political and economic systems
Political and Economic Systems money!)

  • World is made up of about 200 independent countries

    • Each with a government that makes and enforces laws, binding all people living in its territory

Levels of government
Levels of Government money!)

  • Organization – most large countries have several levels of government

  • Unitary System: gives all key powers to the national or central government

    • United Kingdom and France

  • Federal System: divides the powers of government between national and state governments

    • The United States, Canada, Switzerland, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and India

Types of governments
Types of Governments money!)

  • All government systems belong to 3 major groups:

    • Autocracy – rule by one person

    • Oligarchy – rule by a few people

    • Democracy – rule by many people

Autocracy money!)

  • Oldest and most common forms of governments

  • Inheritance or military/police power

  • Several forms:

    • Totalitarian dictatorship

      • Decisions of a single leader determine

        government policies

      • Usually inherit their positions

    • Monarchy

      • King or queen exercises the supreme powers of the government

      • Usually inherit their position

        • Absolute Monarchy: Saudi Arabia – rare

        • Constitutional Monarchy: monarchs share governmental powers with elected legislatures

Oligarchy money!)

  • Small group holds power

  • Derives power from wealth, military power and/or social position

  • Usually suppress all political opposition

  • Can be communist countries or Theocracies

    • China,Iran

Democracy money!)

  • Leaders rule with the consent of the citizens

    • People hold sovereign power

    • Representative democracies (Constitutional Monarchies)

      • United States

      • United Kingdom

Economic systems
Economic Systems money!)

  • Make 3 basic economic decisions:

    • What and how many goods/services should be produced

    • How they should be produced

    • Who gets the goods and services that are produced

  • 3 major economic systems:

    • Traditional, Market and Command

      • (also add in Mixed-Market Economy)

Traditional economy
Traditional Economy money!)

  • Habit and custom determine rules for activity

  • Not free to make decisions based on what they would like to have

    • Defined by customs of their elders

    • Few places have this today

Market economy
Market Economy money!)

  • Individuals and private groups make decisions on what to produce

    • Free enterprise

      • Private individuals or groups have the right to own property or business and make a profit with limited government interference

    • Also called capitalism

    • NO COUNTRY has a pure market economy

    • MIXED economy: government supports and regulates free enterprise through decisions affecting the marketplace (The U.S.)

      • Preserve free market by keeping competition free and fair

      • Supporting the public interest

Command economy
Command Economy money!)

  • Government owns or directs the means of production

    • Land, labor, capital and business managers

    • Controls distribution

  • Either socialist or communist (depending on how much government is involved)

  • Socialism has 3 main goals

    • Equal distribution of wealth and economic opportunity

    • Society’s control (through its government) of all major decisions about production

    • Public ownership of most land and factories

Resources trade and the environment
Resources, Trade and the Environment money!)

  • Natural Resources: elements from the earth can be be used by people

    • Renewable: cannot be used up or can be replaced naturally

    • Nonrenewable: cannot be replaced

      • Conservation

    • Not evenly distributed

Economic activities
Economic Activities money!)

  • Developed Countries: Technology and manufacturing (U.S.A.)

  • Developing Countries: working towards greater manufacturing technology

    • Subsistence farming – growing only enough for the family

    • Remain Poor

World trade
World Trade money!)

  • Countries specialize in products, then trade them

  • When countries cannot produce as much of a good as they want/need, they import it from another country

  • Trading partners!

Barriers to trade
Barriers to Trade money!)

  • Governments add tariffs

  • Put strict quotas on particular products

  • Trade Embargo: banning trade with another country as a way to punish them politically

  • Free Trade: removal of all trade barriers

    • WTO: World Trade Organization

People and the environment
People and the Environment money!)

  • Water normally renewable over time

    • Oil spills, chemical waste seeps into groundwater

  • Air pollution: Fossil fuels

    • Acid Rain

    • Ruins forests and animal habitats