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The Mughals. Indian empire that ruled for more than 300 years (1526 to 1858), except for a brief period under the Sur sultans (1540-1555). . Description. Founded in 1526. Dominated India between 17 th and 18 th centuries. Empire ended in mid-1900s.

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The Mughals

Indian empire that ruled for more than 300 years (1526 to 1858), except for a brief period under the Sur sultans (1540-1555).

slide2

Description

  • Founded in 1526.
  • Dominated India between 17th and 18th centuries.
  • Empire ended in mid-1900s.
  • Descended from Mongolian ancestors around Pakistan.
  • Population at height: between 110 and 130 million people.
  • Sophisticated, mixed Indo-Persian culture.
slide3

Similarities and Differences

Differences:

Similarities:

  • Very different geographic areas.
  • Cuisine is very similar. Lots of meat.
  • Very different traditions.
  • Language is a mixture of multiple languages.
  • Clothing
  • Art is similar (nature).
  • Architecture is much different.
  • Time period.
slide4

Brief History

  • Empire founded in 1526 by Emperor Babur.
  • Prospered under first 6 emperors, referred to as the Great Mughals.
  • 2nd emperor, Humayan, lost several battles to Sher Shah Suri, losing control of Hindustan.
  • 3rd emperor Akbar (circa 1700) regained control of Hindustan. Greatest Mughal ruler.
  • 5th ruler Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal in 1653.
  • Empire declined under 6th emperor, Aurangzeb. Wars of succession, local revolts.
  • By 1765, the Mughal emperor had become a pensioner of the British East India Company.
  • Empire had several more mediocre rulers, finally ending in 1857 with expulsion to Burma (by British) of Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar.
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Influence on India

  • Centralized government system.
  • Persian art/culture merged with native Indian art/culture.
  • New trade routes with Arabs and Turks.
  • Mughlai cuisine.
  • New architectural style.
  • Landscape gardening.
  • Urdu language developed from the fusion of Indian and Islamic culture.
  • Urdu = Persian + Arabic + Turkish
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Art

  • Known for manuscripts and Persian miniature paintings.
  • Very symbolic.
  • Involved a lot of nature (birds, flowers, animals, etc.)
  • Very colorful and detailed.
  • In 1680 Emporer Shah Jahan banned music and painting from his court, but he allowed architectural art, such as the Pearl Mosque and the Taj Mahal.
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Architecture

  • Nearly 400 monuments have survived a time-span of 132 years.
  • White marble and red sandstone was favored.
  • Semi-precious gemstones were popular (jade, crystal, etc.)
  • Used arches sparingly.
  • Symmetry and balance stressed.
  • Used octagons a lot.
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Clothing

  • Kurta ~ an informal dress worn by Mughal men and women.
  • Sometimes sewn with gold or silver threads.
  • Cut in long, flowing panels for comfort; about knee-length.
  • Traditional wear in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.
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Mughal Cuisine

  • Spicy
  • Dried fruit
  • Rich and Creamy
  • Known for various sauces
  • Numerous kabobs
  • Not vegetarian!
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Malpuda Pancakes!

Ingredients:

Flour

Condensed milk

Raisins

Sugar sauce, (syrup)

Butter, (ghee)

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Interesting Facts

  • Hyderabad, Jammu, and Kashmir were the only princely states that did not accede to either India or Pakistan.
  • Currency is called the Rupee.
  • Language is a combination of Persian, Chagatai, and Urdu.
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Sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurta
  • http://www.amazon.com/dp/B001BWZJJ8/ref=asc_df_B001BWZJJ8735209/tag=dealt14869dealt&creative=380333&creativeASIN=B001BWZJJ8&linkCode=asn (KURTA)
  • http://www.umdnj.edu/~humayun/mughals.html
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mughal_Empire
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mughal_era
  • http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/MUGHAL/ORIGIN.HTM 
  • http://encarta.msn.com/text_761564252___4/Mughal_Empire.html
  • http://www.exoticindiaart.com/paintings/Mughal/ (ART)
  • http://www.answers.com/topic/mughal-architecture
  • http://www.indianholiday.com/tourist-attractions/delhi/mughal-garden/ (MUGHAL GARDEN)
  • http://www.storyofpakistan.com/articletext.asp?artid=A020&Pg=5