Central and Southern Asian Empires: The Safavids & Mughals - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Central and Southern Asian Empires: The Safavids & Mughals

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  1. Central and Southern Asian Empires: The Safavids & Mughals Libertyville HS

  2. Safavid Dynasty (1501-1722) • One of the most significant periods in history of Iran • At it’s height, the dynasty ruled modern Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq & parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkey, Caucasus region • Most of history spent fighting Ottoman Empire

  3. Origins • Persian region was politically decentralized • Shia religion unified people • In 1501, Ismail, a local noble in Northern Iran, began conquering neighbors • Called himself “Shah”, or King, of Iran • Clashes with Ottomans lasted into his son’s reign (against Suleiman) & beyond • Sunni vs. Shia • Control over Mesopotamia

  4. Alliance and Expansion • Around 1530, the Safavids allied with a new Muslim state in India, the Mughals • Alliance secured the borders of each state, freeing Safavids to focus on Ottomans • Peace between Ottomans, Safavidsin 1533 let each empire focus on internal affairs First meeting between Safavids, Mughals

  5. Shah Abbas (1587-1629) • Greatest Safavid ruler • Military reforms • Adopted gunpowder weapons, cannon • Adopted European military organization (taught by English) • Moved capitol to center of Empire • Centralized empire’s government, increasing own power in process • Expanded trade with English and Dutch, in India • Sent diplomats to Europe to organize fight vs. Ottomans Safavid Embassy to Venice (1595)

  6. Decline of Safavids • Rise of English and Dutch naval power in India cut off Safavid trade with East Asia • Ottomans continued their attacks in West • Alliance between Mughal, Safavids broke down • Weak rulers, disinterest in ruling & series of assassinations led to fall of dynasty in 1747 • BIG QUESTION: Why didn’t Safavids challenge Europe for dominance? Shah entertaining foreigner dignitaries (1640)

  7. Mughal Empire (1526-1857) • Named to honor Mongols • At height, empire covered almost entire Indian subcontinent • 110-150 million people • 1.2 million square miles

  8. Founding: Babur (1483-1530) • Distant relative of Genghis Khan, through mother • Also related to Tamerlane, an earlier ruler of Chagatai Khanate • Spent most of life fighting in Central Asia & India to carve out territories for self, family

  9. Rise and Expansion of Mughals • In 1526, Babur finally conquered Delhi, establishing Mughal Empire • By 1627, Empire dominated Indian subcontinent • Was arguably richest empire in world in 1600s and early 1700s

  10. Mughal Society and Economy • Under greatest ruler, Akbar, Mughal Empire was religiously open • No dhimmitax • Included Indians in government • Divided lands into raj (states) to make governing easier • Economy based on cotton production and textiles • Greatly expanded rice production fed large population • TajMahal (1630) commissioned

  11. Decline and Fall of Mughal Empire • After 1707, civil wars rocked Empire • External invasions from Central Asian states • Expanding power of British East India Company • Mughals never adopted Western style of warfare • Fought with elephants, traditional spearmen and cavalry • No match for European style armies • Why didn’t Mughal Empire challenge Europe for dominance?