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Introduction To Wildlife Management

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  1. Introduction To Wildlife Management

  2. Terms Associated with Wildlife Management • Bag limit: the legal number of game animals that can be harvested • Carnivores: animals that eat meat • Carrying capacity: number of wildlife each habitat can support throughout the year • Conservation: the use of natural resources in a way that assures their continuing availability to future generations; the wise and intelligent use of natural resources

  3. Terms Associated with Wildlife Management (cont.) • Cover: vegetative or other material providing protection to an animal • Ecosystem: a natural unit that includes living and nonliving parts interacting to produce a stable system in which the exchange of materials between the living and nonliving parts follow close paths; all living things and their environment in an area of any size • Edge: the transitional zone where one cover type ends and another begins • Endangered Species: species that is in danger of becoming extinct through all or part of its range • Exotic: species not native to a region • Extinct Species: species that no longer exist

  4. Terms Associated with Wildlife Management (cont.) • Food Chain: an arrangement of predator-prey relationships in an ecosystem • Food Plot: area planted to maintain wildlife food supply • Furbearer: small animals covered with fur that are primarily hunted or trapped for their pelts • Game Species: any species that can be legally hunted or trapped • Habitat: the natural environment of a plant or animal that supplies its needs for life • Handgun: firearm that has a short barrel, held at arms length and often referred to as a pistol • Herbivore: animals that eat plants

  5. Terms Associated with Wildlife Management (cont.) • Land Bird: bird that habitat and complete its life cycle completely on land (quail, turkey, etc) • Migrate: to move from one region to another for feeding or breeding • Nocturnal: active at night • Omnivores: animals that eat both animals and plants • Population Density: the number of animals in a defined area • Predator: animals which hunt other animals for food • Prey: animals hunted or killed by another animal for food • Raptor: bird of prey

  6. Terms Associated with Wildlife Management (cont.) • Rifle: firearm in which the barrel is rifled causing the bullet to spin • Season: time set aside for legal hunting or fishing • Shotgun: firearm in which the bore is smooth • Species: a group of organisms that resemble each other closely and that interbreed freely • Upland: the higher parts of a region • Waterfowl: water birds, especially those that swim, such as ducks and geese • Wetlands: swamps or marshes • Wildlife: non-domesticated animals including mammals, birds and fish which may be hunted as controlled by law

  7. Careers Related to Wildlife • Wildlife Biologist • Studies wildlife habitat, nutrition, behavior, and reproduction • Help foresters plan prescribed burns, and other habitat manipulations that affect wildlife species • Spend majority of time outdoors • Requires at least a four year degree

  8. Careers Related to Wildlife (cont.) • Game Warden • Patrols assigned areas of land and water to check for violations of fish and game laws • Investigate complaints, issues warnings and makes arrests • Speaks on hunter safety • Helps with stocking fish and releasing wild animals and birds • Spends majority of time outdoors • Requires at least a two year degree (prefer at least a four year degree)

  9. Careers Related to Wildlife (cont.) • Wildlife Technician • Assists the wildlife biologist in gaining information about wildlife species and their habitats • Works with the wildlife biologist in capturing, marking, and transporting wildlife for study

  10. Careers Related to Wildlife (cont) • Park Ranger • Perform duties to keep the park in good condition • Commercial Fisherman • Harvest fish commercially for food • Charter Boat Captain • Operates charter boats which hold six or more passengers • Wildlife Nuisance Control Officer

  11. State & Federal Organizations Related to Wildlife • National Parks Service • United States Fish and Wildlife • United States Forest Service • Corps of Engineers • Bureau of Reclamation • Bureau of Land Management • Environmental Protection Agency

  12. Major Private Wildlife Organizations • Audubon Society • National Wildlife Federation • Wildlife Society • Sierra Club • Ducks Unlimited • Quails Unlimited • Pheasants Forever • National Wild Turkey Federation

  13. Two Groups of Furbearers and Their Species • Wetland Furbearers: mink, muskrat, river otter, and beaver • Upland Furbearer: bobcat, opossum, red fox, stripped and spotted skunk, long tailed weasel, coyote, and raccoon

  14. Game Species of South Carolina • Dove • Bobwhite Quail • Rabbit • Gray Squirrel • White tailed Deer • Mallard Duck • Wood Duck • Wild Turkey • Canadian Goose • Black Bear • Wild Boar • Raccoon

  15. Major Fish Species • Catfish • Crappie • Trout • Bass • Bluegill • Perch

  16. Types of Birds • Upland Migratory Bird • Quail, pheasant, wild turkey, grouse • Wetland Migratory Bird • Ducks, geese, cranes • Raptors • Eagle, falcon, hawk, owl

  17. Large Mammals • Elk • Deer • Sheep • Bison • Mountain goat • Moose • Pronghorn antelope • Bear

  18. Lynx Badger Wolverine Marmot Squirrel Praire Dog Beaver Muskrat Opossum Raccoon Weasel Mink Fox Coyote Porcupine Skunk Chipmunk Woodchuck Hare Rabbit Bobcat Small Mammals

  19. Extinct & Endangered Species • Extinct species no longer exist except for replicas in museums and photographs • Endangered species is one that is no longer common and is in danger of becoming extinct • There are approximately 124 birds, 133 mammals, and 25 fish on the national endangered species list. There have been 9 mammals, 31 birds, and 6 fish that have become extinct in the United States in the 20th Century

  20. Illegal Hunting Predators Starvation Droughts Storms Disease Parasites Fires Accidents Human Activities Loss of Habitat Dangers to Wildlife Populations

  21. Agricultural Practices That Support Wildlife • Farm around the hill (contour) to control sediment that might enter and ruin ponds, lakes, and streams • Leave fence rows undisturbed to provide cover so wildlife can travel to other areas • Provide farm ponds and tanks for wildlife drinking water • Use windbreaks and shelterbelts to provide food and cover for wildlife • Seed legumes and grasses to provide food and cover for wildlife

  22. Agricultural Practices That Support Wildlife (cont.) • Leave brush and dead trees to provide nesting cover for wildlife • Prevent overgrazing on grasslands to protect escape cover, nesting cover, and food for wildlife • Leave crop residue on the ground as food • Provide food plot areas to keep wildlife away from crops

  23. Wildlife Activities That May Cause Damage To Agriculture • Prey on domestic livestock and poultry • Feed on agriculture crops • Compete for grass on grazing land • Feed on stored agriculture food supplies • Cause damage to trees • Cause damage to equipment and facilities

  24. Ways To Control Wildlife Damage Problems • Reduce the number of destructive animals • Provide fencing or other mechanical barriers • Use frightening techniques • Encourage adequate game harvest by hunters • Adjust agriculture practices • Establish feeding and nesting areas on non crop land

  25. Federal Legislation Concerning Wildlife • Lacey Act – brought the federal government into the business of wildlife law enforcement • Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act – called for identification of fish and wildlife species not taken for sport or commercial purposes

  26. Federal Legislation Concerning Wildlife (cont.) • Migratory Bird Conservation Act (1934) or “Duck Stamp Program” – funded by a special annual fee paid by active hunters and non-hunting friends of wild waterfowl to acquire refuges and to lease wetlands for the primary benefit of migratory birds • Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act (1937) or Pittman Robertson Act – provides funding for wildlife management by placing an excise tax on firearms and ammunition

  27. Federal Legislation Concerning Wildlife (cont.) • Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act (1950) or Dingell Johnson Act – provided funding for fish management by taxing fishing and boating equipment • Endangered Species Act (1973) – gave authority for protecting rare and endangered species to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

  28. Three Levels of Food Chain • On the first level of the food chain is the producers (grass, shrubs, trees) • On the second level of the food chain are the herbivores, which consume the producers to survive (grasshopper, rabbit, deer) • On the third level of the food chain are the carnivores, which consume herbivores to survive (fox, wolf, owl)

  29. Interaction Within A Food Web • A food web shows the interconnecting food chains in an ecosystem • Each organism is generally part of more than one food chain