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Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management

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Wildlife Management

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  1. Wildlife Management by Larry Stine Estherville Lincoln Central High School

  2. Competencies: • define wildlife terms • identify characteristics of wildlife • describe relationships between wildlife and humans • understand relationships with humans • describe classifications of wildlife • identify approved practices • discuss future of wildlife in the U.S.

  3. Terms to Know • Wildlife • Habitat • Vertebrate • Predators • Prey • Parasitism

  4. Terms to Know • Warm-blooded animals • Mutualism • Predation • Commensalism • Competition • Wetlands

  5. In the early years.... • Wildlife provided the bulk of food available • Supplies seemed exhaustible • Humans destroyed wildlife habitat

  6. Characteristics of Wildlife • All vertebrate animals are wildlife • Vertebrates-animals with backbones • Have many of the same characteristics as humans: • growth processes • laws of heredity • general cell structure

  7. Environment without control • Must adapt or perish • Possess senses for protection from predators • Avoid overpopulation

  8. Wildlife Relationships • Parasitism • Mutualism • Predation • Commensalism • Competition

  9. Parasitism • Relationship between two organisms, either plants or animals, in which one feeds on the other without killing it. • Parasites can be internal or external

  10. Mutualism • Two types of animals that live together for mutual benefit • There are many examples of mutualism in the wildlife community

  11. Predation • When one animal eats another animal • Is important in controlling populations of wildlife

  12. Commensalism • A Plant or animal that lives in, on, or with another, sharing its food, but not helping or harming it • One species is helped, but the other is neither helped or harmed

  13. Competition • When different species of wildlife compete for the same: • food supply • nesting sites • breeding sites • One species may increase in numbers while the other declines

  14. Relationships Between Wildlife and Humans • Biological • Ecological • Economic • food • clothing • shelter

  15. Six Positive Values • Commercial • Recreational • Biological • Aesthetic • Scientific • Social

  16. Commercial • Sale of wildlife or wildlife products • Raising of animals for: • hunting • fishing

  17. Recreational • Hunting and Fishing • Watching • Photographing

  18. Biological • Value of the biological relationship between humans and wildlife is difficult to measure • Examples • Pollination of crops • Soil Improvement • Water conservation • Control of parasites

  19. Aesthetic • Refers to beauty • Is not measurable in economic terms • Can contribute to the mental well-being of the human race

  20. Scientific • Often benefits humans • Has existed since the beginning of time • Early humans watched wild animals to determine which plants and berries were safe to eat

  21. Social • Difficult to measure • Wildlife has the ability to enhance the value of their surroundings just by their presence • Provide humans the opportunity for variety in outdoor recreation, hobbies, and adventure

  22. Classifications of Wildlife Management • Farm • Forest • Wetlands • Stream • Lakes and Ponds

  23. Farm Wildlife • Probably the most visible wildlife management classification • Includes: • development of fence rows • minimum tillage • improvement of woodlots • controlled hunting

  24. Forest Wildlife • More difficult to manage • Planned so that timber and wildlife can exist at desired populations and possibly be harvested • Includes population controls to prevent habitat destruction

  25. Wetlands Wildlife • Most productive wildlife management area • Includes all areas between dry upland and open water • Includes • marshes • swamps • bogs

  26. Stream Wildlife • Often a difficult task • Water pollution and the need for clean water for a growing human population continue to increase at a rapid pace

  27. Lake and Pond Wildlife • Normally easier than in streams • Concerns include: • population levels • oxygen levels • pollutants • availability of food resources

  28. Approved Practices - Farm Wildlife • Usually a by-product of farming • Little attention usually given by the farmer except when cause crop damage or financial loss • Management involves providing habitat • Timing of operations is important • Planting crops attractive to wildlife • Providing water during dry periods

  29. Approved Practices - Forest Wildlife • Types and numbers of wildlife differs with: • type and age of the trees • natural forest openings • types of vegetation on the forest floor • presence of natural predators • Management is geared towards increases numbers of desired species of wildlife • If desired populations are present the goal is to maintain those populations

  30. Approved Practices - Wetland Wildlife • No area of American land is more important • Are constantly changing • Provide food, nesting sites, and cover • Ducks and geese are the most economically important types of wildlife that need wetlands • Other types include woodcock, pheasants, deer, bears, milk, muskrats, and raccoons

  31. Approved Practices - Stream Wildlife • Two general categories: • warm water • cold water • Based on water temperature at which the wildlife, primarily fish, can best grow and thrive • Little difference in managing the two types • In general, fish are the type of stream wildlife that is managed

  32. Approved Practices - Stream Wildlife • Maintenance of population levels is important • Removal of unwanted species by: • netting • poisoning • electric shocking • Artificial rearing and stocking • Regulations of sport fishing

  33. Approved Practices - Lake and Pond Wildlife • Very similar to managing stream wildlife • Pollution must be controlled • Populations must be monitored and harvesting controlled • Differences include: • oxygen levels are critical in the summer • water temperatures are more variable • may have to drain to remove unwanted species

  34. Future of Wildlife in the U.S. • A bright future is not ensured for all species • Human population continues to compete • Outlook is not bleak, however • Humans have recognized the ability to coexist • Humans are working to clean-up the environment • Parks and wildlife refuges are increasing in numbers