Wildlife ManagementAGSC 381“Wildlife Habitat Requirements”
What is Wildlife Habitat? The kind of place where an… • Animal • Bird • Fish • or plant live in a natural state.
Elements of Habitat • COVER • FOOD • WATER • SPACE • ARRANGEMENT These elements must be kept in a favorable balance for Wildlife to survive.
Cover • Nesting area • Breeding area • Hiding place • Resting place • Safe place to sleep • Feeding area; and • Travel route
Food • Animals must eat • Three types: Carnivores-meat eaters Herbivores-plant eaters Omnivores-consume both meat and plants
Water • Essential to all life • Some Wildlife require no free water (can get water from diet) • Some Require lots of free water • These must have permanent source in habitat
Space • Space or Territory requirements vary greatly among animals • Mountain lion=up to 150 square miles • House Wren=few as 150 square feet • Effected by migration, immigration (in), emigration (out)
Arrangement • Elements must be properly arranged for animal to use habitat • Proximity is the limiting factor • Each species has it’s own measure for distances between elements
Carrying Capacity • Number of animals a habitat can support over a given period of time • Not a constant number • Changes as the condition of the habitat changes
How can we help?? • Growing vegetation • Provide structures • Learn cover needs • Plant trees and shrubs of various sizes and species • Nest boxes for wood ducks • Conifer plantings for ruffed grouse
Can our help be harmful? • Problems arise when we do not help properly • Animals (deer) may become too dependant • May encourage overpopulations
Alternative to feeding… • Encourage growth of natural sources of food • Plant trees • Wild apple trees • Crops • Wild rice • Plant crops that provide both food and shelter for animals and birds.
Summary • Five elements of a quality wildlife habitat are: cover, food, water, space and arrangement • Any one can be a limiting factor • Each species requires different types and amounts of each element
References • Instructional Materials Service book for AGSC 381 • Pictures taken from: dgl.microsoft.com