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Nutrition for Exercise & Sport. Exercise Physiology McArdle, Katch, Katch: Chapter 3. Overview. Nutrient Consumption: Fit & Non-fit Dietary Reference Intakes Calorie and Macronutrient Needs Pre workout (competition) Meal Water Carbohydrate Fat Protein Adding Mass: Gaining Weight.

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nutrition for exercise sport

Nutrition for Exercise & Sport

Exercise Physiology

McArdle, Katch, Katch: Chapter 3

  • Nutrient Consumption: Fit & Non-fit
  • Dietary Reference Intakes
  • Calorie and Macronutrient Needs
    • Pre workout (competition) Meal
    • Water
    • Carbohydrate
    • Fat
    • Protein
  • Adding Mass: Gaining Weight
nutrient consumption fit
Nutrient Consumption: Fit
  • Active people do not require additional nutrients beyond those obtained in a nutritionally well balanced diet.
  • What physically fit actually eat.
    • Small differences in energy intake (low v high)
    • Higher dietary fiber & lower cholesterol intakes
    • Diets more closely approach recommendations
  • Sound human nutrition represents sound nutrition for athletes.
dietary reference intakes
Dietary Reference Intakes
  • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) is an umbrella term encompassing an array of standards: the RDAs, Estimated Average Requirements (EARs), Adequate Intakes (AIs), and tolerable Upper intake Levels(UL).
  • DRIs differ from predecessor RDAs by focusing on promoting health maintenance and risk-reduction for nutrient-related disease rather than preventing deficiency-related diseases.
dietary reference intakes5
Dietary Reference Intakes
  • EAR is average level of daily nutrient intake sufficient to meet requirements of ½ healthy people in given age/gender group.
  • RDA is average daily nutrient to meet requirements of nearly all people in given age/gender group.
dietary reference intakes6
Dietary Reference Intakes
  • Adequate intake (AI)provides a nutritional goal when no RDA exists.
  • Tolerable upper intake level (UL) is highest average daily nutrient intake likely to pose no risk or adverse health effects to most age/gender group.
my pyramid replaces food guide
My Pyramid Replaces Food Guide
  • My Pyramid replaces Food Guide Pyramid to provide food intake guidance based on age, sex, and level of daily exercise.
  • Recommend consuming between 45% and 65% of total calories from CHO.
  • Recommend consuming between 20% to 35% of total calories from Fat.
  • Recommend consuming between 10% to 35% of total calories from Protein.
  • Recommended meal composition includes 60% CHO, 25% protein, 15% Fat (Institute of Medicine).
exercise and food intake
Exercise and Food Intake
  • Mean energy intakes peak between ages 16 and 29 years & declines thereafter.
  • For individuals who exercise regularly food intake balances daily energy expenditure.
  • Lack of precision in regulating food intake at low end of energy expenditure leads to creeping obesity.
exercise and food intake9
Exercise and Food Intake
  • Most obvious distinction in nutrient needs between active and inactive is more total calories.
  • Except for high energy intake at extremes, daily intake does not exceed 4000 kCal for men and 3000 kCal for women.
exercise and food intake10
Exercise and Food Intake
  • Phelps told ESPN he eats roughly 8,000-10,000 cal/d, including lots of pizza & pasta.
  • Breakfast of champions
    • 3 fried egg sandwiches
    • 2 cups coffee
    • 5-egg omelet
    • 1 bowl grits
    • 3 slices French toast
    • 3 chocolate chip pancakes

Beijing 4 x 100 freestyle relay, 8-11-08

exercise and food intake11
Exercise and Food Intake
  • To support 6’4”, approximately 190#, training regimen requires ~1,000 cal/hr while training or racing.
  • Probably eats closer to 6,000 cal/day.
exercise and food intake12
Exercise and Food Intake

Minimum: current wt (lb) X 23 = total calories for males

      • Current wt (lb) x 20 = total calories for females
  • Relatively high caloric intakes of physically active men & women usually increase protein, vitamin, and mineral intake above normal.
  • Percentage of calories from energy nutrients should remain in normal ranges.
precompetition meal
Precompetition Meal

Pre-workout meal goal: maximize muscle & liver glycogen stores providing glucose for intestinal absorption during exercise & enhance hydration.

  • Be consumed within 3-4 hours before exercising sufficient time to digest & absorb.
  • Reasons precompetition meal high in CHO:
    • Foods high in lipid & protein digest slowly
    • Low CHO meal can hinder performance
  • Contain 150 – 300 g CHO in solid or liquid
  • Benefits of precomp liquid meal: contribute to fluid needs, absorb rapidly leaving no residue
carbohydrate needs
Carbohydrate Needs*
  • Carbohydrate is the optimal fuel for exercise
  • Prolonged and intermittent, intense training depletes carbohydrate (glycogen) stores resulting in poor performance and fatigue.
  • Consume carbohydrate with every meal.
  • In general, carbohydrates (CHO) should always provide at least 55% of total daily calorie (TDC) intake. Ideally 60-70% of TDC.
carbohydrate needs15
Carbohydrate Needs*

More intense or prolonged training requires more carbohydrate

  • 3 grams/lb body weight for 1 hour training
  • 4.5 grams/lb body weight for 2 hours training.
  • 5 grams/lb body weight for 3 hours training.
  • 6 grams/lb body weight for 4+ hours training.

How many calories per gram of CHO?

Sources: Bread, Tortillas, Bagels, English Muffins, Cereals, Rice, Pasta, Vegetables, Potatoes, *Fruit, Fruit Juices, Sports Drinks, Soda Pop, Crackers, Pita, Pretzels, Popcorn

carbohydrate needs16
Carbohydrate Needs
  • Before exercise
    • pre-exercise fructose absorbs more slowly, but GI distress
    • consuming rapidly absorbed, high glycemic CHO w/i 1 hr before exercising accelerates glycogen depletion by causing insulin overshoot & rebound hypoglycemia.
    • consuming low glycemic CHO immediately (< 30 min) allows for relatively slow absorption.
  • During exercise: 30-60 grams per hour, 5-10 oz of 5-8% CHO electrolyte drink every 15-20 min or 2 gels per hour; drink contributes to temperature regulation
  • After exercise
    • To speed up glycogen replenishment, consume 50-75 g moderate to high glycemic index w/i 15 minutes.
    • Under optimal CHO intake, takes 20 hrs to replenish glycogen stores at rate of 5% per hour.
fluid intake chapter 2
Fluid Intake (Chapter 2)*
  • Fluid needs = body weight X .67 = ounces you require daily NOT including exercise
  • What should you drink:
    • Night before: 16 oz. of water before bed
    • Morning of practice: 16 oz. of water ASA get up
    • If practice later in day: 16 oz. of water 2 hrs. b4 practice
    • Pre-exercise: 6-8 oz. water or sports drink 15 min before practice, try avoid carbonated beverages or caffeine, NO fruit juices before exercise – can cause loose bowels & gas
    • During exercise: 4-8 oz. every 15 minutes water & sports drink alternate between two
    • Post exercise: 24 oz. for every pound lost w/i 2 hrs. exercise
fluid glucose and electrolyte intake
Fluid, Glucose, and Electrolyte Intake
  • Recommendations
    • Fluid volume within stomach exerts greatest effect on rate of gastric emptying.
    • To maintain a relatively large fluid volume in stomach & speed gastric emptying, consume 400-600 ml (13.5-20.3 oz) [immediately] 2 hrs before and __?_ 15 min before exercise;
    • With subsequent regular ingestion of [250 ml 8.45 oz] ? every throughout exercise.
    • To optimize water & CHO absorption use a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (not too dilute or too concentrated).
    • Adding sodium to rehydration beverage maintains plasma osmolarity, reduces urine output, motivates.
sodium potential benefit
Sodium Potential Benefit*
  • Sodium benefits ultraendurance athlete

at risk for hyponatremia.

  • Adding sodium to rehydration beverage

maintains plasma osmolarity, reduces

urine output, motivates drinking.

  • Theoretically, water absorption across

intestinal mucosa may be enhance by concurrent absorption of glucose and Na+.

  • Glucose stimulates sodium absorption, sodium is necessary for glucose absorption, and co-transport stimulates water’s passive uptake by osmotic action.

Best ways to replace K & Na post-exercise:

  • Orange juice & salted pretzels, Baked potato with ketchup or salt
  • Nectarine and some Chex mix, Mix of dried apricots and salted nuts
carbohydrate needs in intense exercise
Carbohydrate Needs in Intense Exercise*
  • Successive days of intense training gradually deplete glycogen reserves even with typical CHO intakes: staleness.
  • High CHO diet (80% of caloric intake) for 3 days increased muscle _______ and endurance time.
carbohydrate loading
Carbohydrate Loading

Glycogen Loading: procedure increases muscle glycogen levels more than normal (1.7 g/100 g).

    • Normal amount of glycogen packed in muscle: 5 g glycogen/ 100 g muscle
  • What is major benefit of carbohydrate loading?
    • Endurance capacity
    • Unless athlete begins competing completely depleted, exercise < 60 min requires normal carbohydrate intake
  • What is major drawback of glycogen loading?
    • Each gram glycogen stores 2.7 grams H2O, makes “heavy” fuel.
carbohydrate loading22
Carbohydrate Loading
  • Classic Carbohydrate Loading
    • Stage 1: depletion
      • Day 1: perform exhaustive exercise to deplete
      • Days 2, 3, 4: Maintain low CHO food intake
    • Stage 2: loading
      • Days 5, 6, 7: maintain high CHO food intake
    • Stage 3: competition
  • Modified Loading
      • Days 1-3: exercise @ 75% VO2 max, 1.5 hrs, 50% CHO
      • Days 4-6: taper exercise duration, 70% CHO
fat needs
Fat Needs*
  • Too much can cause cramps
  • Not enough can cause fatigue more quickly
  • Try to limit high fat foods before and during exercise.
  • Foods to avoid before & during exercise: chips, ice cream, nuts, nut butters, french fries, doughnuts, fried meats, pizza, chocolate, bologna, salami, pepperoni, burgers
  • In general, limit TDC intake < 30% fat.
protein needs
Protein Needs*
  • Body can’t use more than 1 gram of protein per pound of body weight!
  • Not immediately available as an energy source for exercise.
  • Important for recovery and to boost immune system.
  • Sources: chicken, turkey, soy burgers, fish, eggs, dried beans, beef, cheese, nuts and nut butters, pork, milk, veal, shellfish
  • In general, 15-20% TDC intake.
nutrient timing resistance training
Nutrient Timing Resistance Training
  • Energy Phase: immediately pre- & during exercise period consume high glycemic CHO & rapidly digested PRO supplement.
  • Anabolic Phase: consume high glycemic CHO/PRO in liquid form during 45-minute post-exercise.
  • Growth Phase: from end of anabolic to beginning next workout, high glycemic CHO and high PRO intake.

Adding Mass

  • Goals for weight & strength gain = 1 lb/wk
  • 10-14 additional grams protein/day  1 lb muscle mass/week
  • Goals to add 500-100 additional calories/day
  • Increase number of meals, not just size meals
  • Don’t rely on weight gainers or high protein powders. Fill you up before get in all calories
illustration references
Illustration References
  • McArdle, William D., Frank I. Katch, and Victor L. Katch. 2000. Essentials of Exercise Physiology 2nd ed. Image Collection. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Plowman, Sharon A. and Denise L. Smith. 1998. Digital Image Archive for Exercise Physiology. Allyn & Bacon.
  • Carmichael, Chris. 2005. The Lance Armstrong Diet, Men’s Journal, Aug. p. 38.