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A Synthesis of Science, Mathematics and Computer Science: Medical Applications, Space Exploration and Robotics Theodore Raphan Dept. Of Computer and Information Science Brooklyn College and Graduate Center City University of New York NASA Roadmap Bone Loss (Osteoporosis)

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slide1

A Synthesis of Science, Mathematics and Computer Science:Medical Applications, Space Explorationand Robotics

Theodore Raphan

Dept. Of Computer and Information Science

Brooklyn College and Graduate Center

City University of New York

slide3

Bone Loss (Osteoporosis)

  • A disease of excessive demineralization of bone, which on average starts to take place in both sexes after age 35. Men are less affected.
  • The decrease in the bone density of postmenopausal women is a much more serious problem, however by age 75, the gap closes where both genders become equally prone for bone loss.
  • For instance, after sustaining a hip fracture, it is estimated that 20% of patients die within one year, 50% cannot walk any longer without assistance, while 25% may have to be institutionalized in long-term nursing care facilities.
slide4

Bone Remodeling

  • A process where the adult skeleton undergoes a continuous turnover whereby old bone is resorbed by osteoclasts and new bone is formed by osteoblasts.
  • Osteoclasts are cell types that degrade bone and its protein components by releasing calcium from bone into circulation, where calcium can either remain, or be excreted
  • Osteoblasts are cell types that synthesizes new bone.
  • Exercise and Bone Loading is Extremely Important for Bone Health
slide7

Conclusions

  • Computer Image Analysis is Becoming an Important Technique
  • For early detection of problems of Bone Density and Architecture
  • The image analysis shows that bone architecture as well as bone density are important factors in bone health
  • Computer Image Analysis in Three Dimensions shows even greater promise of identifying factors that contribute to osteoporosis by examining its archtecture and density in 3D.
slide8

Sensory Motor Function and Adaptation

  • Maintains Balance While Walking and Running
  • Helps See Clearly While Moving or Objects Move
  • Eye Hand Coordination (Hitting a Baseball)
  • Many Other Functions
slide12

COMPENSATORY GAZE MECHANISMS

COMPENSATORY Angular Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (aVOR)

COMPENSATORY Angular Vestibulo-Collic Reflex (VCR)

TEND TO MAINTAIN

INVARIANT HEAD POINTING DIRECTION

TENDS TO MAINTAIN

INVARIANT GAZE DIRECTION

BODY ROTATION

HEAD ROTATION

COMPENSATORY Linear Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (lVOR)

COMPENSATORY Linear Vestibulo-Collic Reflex (lVCR)

TENDS TO MAINTAIN

INVARIANT GAZE FIXATION POINT

TENDS TO MAINTAIN

INVARIANT HEAD FIXATION POINT

HEAD TRANSLATION

HEAD TRANSLATION

vcr in action
VCR In Action

Acknowledgement: Video from Ken Money

slide15

Benign paroxysmal Positional vertigo (BPPV)

Taken from Web Site of Timothy Hain

slide16

Epley Maneuver to Cure BPPV

Taken from Website of Timothy Hain

slide17

Robot Design for Static Stability

Inoue-Inaba laboratory

Bipedal Robot

Wind-Up Toy

Walking motion must be done relatively slowly and the robot must be able to balance on one foot.  Another way to increase stability is to make the center of gravity as low as possible.

slide18

Qrio Robot from SONY

Taken from SONY website

slide21

Sony AIBO Quadrupedal Robot

1. Utilizes Static Stability

2. Loaded with sensors including color camera, heat sensors, an infra-red range finder, touch sensors, acceleration and speed sensors and a stereo microphone. It has 18 joints producing 250 types of movement

slide26

Robotis Bioloid

(Tribotix)

conclusions
CONCLUSIONS
  • Science Utilizes Methodologies in Mathematics and Computer Science To Study a Wide Range of Problems Dealing With Health and Space Travel.
  • Robotics is a Growing Field and A Number of new Developments
  • in Robot Design is Inspired by Sensory Motion Function
  • A quadrupedal robot has been outfitted with an artificial vestibular
  • sensor, which monitors head motion and orientation.
  • A rudimentary compensatory system (program) that can maintain head stability at low frequencies when the robot is moved in space has been implemented
  • The initial necessary steps have been implemented for developing algorithms for dynamically stable walking in quadrupeds and ultimately for bipeds
acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

Bernard Cohen

Yasuhiro Osaki

Takao Imai

Eishi Hirosaki

Marek Marcinkiewicz

Ravi Kauchik

Simon Parsons

Jizhong Xiao

Elizabeth Sklar

Mikhail Kunin

Yongqing Xiang

Koji Kudo

Lawrence Goetz

slide29

Grant Support

DC 05222 NIH-NIDCD

Vestibular mechanisms in the Dynamics of Locomotion

EY04148 NIH-NEI

Multidimensional Dynamics of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex

P30 D2C0504-01A1

NIH-NIDCD

Core Center

NCC-9-58 NASA through a cooperative Agreement with NSBRI

Advanced Techniques for Assessment of Postural and Locomotor Ataxia, Spatial Orientation And Gaze Stability

CNS-0520989NSF - NSF-MRI

Acquisition of Bipedal Robot Facility to Support Research into Improvement of Orientation and Stability of Locomotion

CUNY-Collaborative grant 80209-09-12

Brooklyn College Technical Fee and GRTI Grant

NSF 0633497- CCLI

Develocping a STEM Curriculum for Early College Programs: A High School to College Continuum