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Medical Robotics History, current and future applications Overview Introduction Classification Application of Medical Robotics Design of Robotic Telesurgery Historic Companies and Systems Existing surgical systems Strengths and Limitations Ethical and Safety Considerations

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medical robotics

Medical Robotics

History, current and future applications

  • Introduction
  • Classification
  • Application of Medical Robotics
  • Design of Robotic Telesurgery
  • Historic Companies and Systems
  • Existing surgical systems
  • Strengths and Limitations
  • Ethical and Safety Considerations
  • Challenges, Future and Conclusion
introduction 1
  • Definition: Robotic systems for surgery
      • There are computer-integrated surgery (CIS) systems first, and “medical robots” second. The robot itself is just one element of a larger system designed to assist a surgeon in carrying out a surgical procedure..” [Taylor, 2003]
introduction 2
  • CIS
  • Information flow in CIS
introduction 3
  • Motivation:
    • Started with the weaknesses and strengths of minimally invasive surgery (MIS)
    • Smaller incisions, shorter post-operative time, reduced infection, faster rehabilitation, lesser pain, better cosmetics, ...
    • Eye-hand coordination, difficulty in moving arms, degree of motion
introduction 4
  • MIS
    • Minimally invasive surgery uses techniques of surgical access and exposure that significantly reduce trauma to the body compared to traditional incisions.
  • Depending on the degree of surgeon interaction during the procedure:
    • Supervisory-controlled;
    • Telesurgical;
    • Shared-control;
application of medical robotics 1
Application of Medical Robotics(1)
  • Laboratory Robots
    • For pre-programmed tasks
    • High repetitions
    • Perform multiple-tests in parallel
    • Manufacturers include, Thermo Electron Corp, Hamilton Co, Central Research Laboratories (CRL), A Dover Diversified Co etc.
application of medical robotics 2
Application of Medical Robotics(2)
  • Telesurgery
    • Surgeon sits at a console
    • Has controls to move the robotic arms
    • Does not operate on the patient directly
    • Mainly used in minimally invasive surgeries
application of medical robotics 3
Application of Medical Robotics(3)
  • Surgical Training
    • Robots used as surgical training simulators
    • Used for medical resident students
    • Residents lack expertise and this helps in avoiding legal, social and economic problems
  • The Second Generation Robotic Telesurgical System for Laparoscopy during tests in the Experimental Surgery Lab at UC San Francisco
application of medical robotics 4
Application of Medical Robotics(4)
  • Telemedicine and Teleconsultation
    • Telecommunciation channels to communicate with other physicians/patients
    • Control an external camera which in turn controls an endoscopic camera – used to share images with a remote surgeon
application of medical robotics 5
Application of Medical Robotics(5)
  • Rehabilitation
    • Assistive robots
    • Wheelchair with intelligent navigational control system
application of medical robotics 6
Application of Medical Robotics(6)
  • Remote surgery
    • Surgeon can be anywhere in the world
    • Remotely controls the robotic surgical system
    • Very useful for treating wounded people in battlefields
application of medical robotics 7
Application of Medical Robotics(7)
  • Laparoscopic Surgery
    • Performed in the abdominal cavity using MIS
    • Abdomen cavity is expanded using CO2
    • Uses Laparoscopic instrument
      • Fiber optic channels to illuminate the inside of abdominal cavity
      • Lens optics to transmit image
      • CCD camera at the outer end
      • Image displayed on high resolution TV
application of medical robotics 8
Application of Medical Robotics(8)
  • Laparoscopic Surgery
  • Traditional laparoscope instruments have limitations
    • Has 4 DOFs - Arbitrary orientation of instrument tip not possible
    • Reduction in dexterity
    • Reduction in motion reversal due to fulcrum at entry point
    • Friction at air tight trocar – reduction in force feedback
    • Lack of tactile sensing
design of robotic telesurgery 1
Design of Robotic Telesurgery(1)
  • Minimally Invasive Surgery
    • Surgery performed by making small incisions < 10mm dia
    • Reduces post-operative pain and hospital stays
    • Form of telemanipulation
    • Instruments have a camera attached to transmit inside image to the surgeon
design of robotic telesurgery 2
Design of Robotic Telesurgery(2)
  • The Concept
    • Telerobotics is a natural tool to extend capabilities in MIS
    • The goal is to restore the manipulation and sensation capabilities of the surgeon
    • Using a 6 DOF slave manipulator, controlled through a spatially consistent and intuitive master
design of robotic telesurgery 3
Design of Robotic Telesurgery(3)
  • The Concept
  • Telesurgical system concept
design of robotic telesurgery 4
Design of Robotic Telesurgery(4)
  • Considerations:
    • Compatibility
    • Backdrivabilit
    • Actuator’s impedance
    • Actuators receive tool-to-tissue force
    • Loss of power can lead to dropping of a heavy tool and undesirable high accelerations in the actuator
design of robotic telesurgery 5
Design of Robotic Telesurgery(5)
  • Considerations:
    • Human-Machine Interface
    • Video system used to capture images inside the patient
    • Backlash-loss of motion between a set of movable parts
      • Choose the appropriate mechanism for the required transmission
    • Choose passive gravity balance over active gravity balance
design of robotic telesurgery 6
Design of Robotic Telesurgery(6)
  • Haptic Feedback
    • Sensation of touch lost in robotic surgery
    • Receiving haptic information and using it to control the robotic manipulators
    • Needed to achieve high fidelity
    • Types
      • Force (kinesthetic) feedback
      • Tactile (cutaneous) feedback
design of robotic telesurgery 7
Design of Robotic Telesurgery(7)
  • Haptic Feedback
    • Hand tie – tradition suturing mechanism
    • Instrument tie – estimate of performance (same type of feedback as resolved-force feedback)
    • Robotic tie – suturing task performed by da Vinci®
design of robotic telesurgery 8
Design of Robotic Telesurgery(8)
  • Haptic Feedback
  • Experimental results
    • Accuracy cannot be improved to the level of hand ties by using force feedback
    • Hand tie had the lowest NSD. Repeatability can be improved by using force feedback in robotic surgical systems
    • Both instrument and robot reduces the performance margin between expert and novice users
design of robotic telesurgery 9
Design of Robotic Telesurgery(9)
  • Haptic Feedback
    • Fidelity – ability to detect compliance variations in the environment
    • P (Position error) +FF (kinesthetic force feedback) control architecture – to determine if the use of force sensor on slave manipulator will provide fidelity
historic companies and systems 1
Historic Companies and Systems(1)
  • First Robotic assisted surgery 1988
    • – PUMA 560
    • – Light duty industrial robotic arm to guide laser/needle for sterostactic brain surgery
historic companies and systems 2
Historic Companies and Systems(2)
  • First Robotic urological surgery 1992
    • – PROBOT-assisted TURP in Guy’s Hospital in London leaded by Wickham
historic companies and systems 3
Historic Companies and Systems(3)
  • First commercially available robotic system, 1992
    • – ROBODOC for orthopaedic hip surgery
historic companies and systems 4
Historic Companies and Systems(4)
  • First RCT of transatlantic telerobotics surgery
    • – Between Guy’s and John Hopkins Hospitals
    • – PAKY-RCM percutaneous access robot (Kavoussi group developed in 1996)
existing surgical systems 1
Existing surgical systems(1)
  • AESOP (Computer Motion), 1994
    • – Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning – a voice-activated robotic arm for camera holder
    • – First approved surgical robotic system by FDA
existing surgical systems 3
Existing surgical systems(3)
  • ZEUS (Computer Motion)
    • – Marketed in 1998
existing surgical systems 4
Existing surgical systems(4)
  • Da Vinci (Intuitive Surgical)
    • – Initially developed by US Department of Defence in 1991
    • – Intuitive Surgical acquired the prototype and commercialized the system
    • – Approved by FDA in July 2000
existing surgical systems 5
Existing surgical systems(5)
  • Da Vinci Surgical® system by Intuitive Surgical, Inc.
existing surgical systems 6
Existing surgical systems(6)
  • Da Vinci Surgical® system by Intuitive Surgical, Inc.
    • Surgical Console - 3D display and master control
    • Patient side cart - two or three instrument arms and one endoscope arm
    • EndoWrist Instrument - 7 DOFs, quick-release levers
    • InSite Vision System - high resolution 3D endoscope and image processing equipment
existing surgical systems 7
Existing surgical systems(7)
  • Da Vinci Surgical® system by Intuitive Surgical, Inc.
existing surgical systems 8
Existing surgical systems(8)
  • Da Vinci Surgical® system by Intuitive Surgical, Inc.
  • Video
existing surgical systems 9
Existing surgical systems(9)
  • Advantages of Da Vinci Surgical®:
    • Technically
      • – Patented Endowrist: 6 degrees of movement
      • – 3-D vision (Dual channel endoscopy) and magnified view (x12)
      • – Tremor suppression and scaling of movement


      • – Ergonomic advantage
      • – Shorter learning curve
    • Patient
      • – Better outcome
existing surgical systems 12
Existing surgical systems(12)
  • Da Vinci surgical system in a general procedure setting
existing surgical systems 13
Existing surgical systems(13)
  • daVinci® Surgical System U.S. Installed Base 1999 – 2008
strengths and limitations 1
Strengths and Limitations(1)
  • Strengths:
    • Physical separation
    • Wrist action
    • Tremor elimination
    • Optional motion scaling
    • Three-dimensional stereoscopic image
    • Electronic information transfer (Telesurgery)
strengths and limitations 2
Strengths and Limitations(2)
  • Limitation
    • Reluctance to accept this technology (trust)
    • Additional training
    • Fail proof?
    • Most of the sensors use IR transmission
    • Highly efficient visual instruments are needed
    • Cannot be pre-programmed
    • Task-specific robots are required
    • Latency in transmission of mechanical movements by the surgeon
    • Longer operating time
strengths and limitations 3
Strengths and Limitations(3)
  • Limitation
    • Cost for the Da Vinci system:
      • The average base cost of a System is $1.5 million
      • Approximately $ 160,000 maintenance cost a year
      • Operating room cost, $150 per hour
      • Hospital stay cost, $600 per day
      • Time away from work, $120 per day
ethical and safety considerations
Ethical and Safety Considerations
  • When there is a marginal benefit from using robots, is it ethical to impose financial burden on patients or medical systems?
  • If a robot-assisted surgery fails because of technical problems, is it the surgeon who is responsible or others?
challenges future and conclusion
Challenges, Future and Conclusion
  • Haptic feedback
  • A safe, easy sterilizable, accurate, cheap and compact robot
  • Reliable telesurgical capabilities
  • Compatibility with available medical equipment and standardizing
  • Autonomous robot surgeons
  • Robotics in surgery: history, current and future applications. New York: Nova Science Pub-. lishers; 2007
  • J.E. Speich, J. Rosen, 'Medical Robotics,' In Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, pp. 983-993, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2004.