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Medical Robotics

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  1. Medical Robotics History, current and future applications

  2. Overview • Introduction • Classification • Application of Medical Robotics • Design of Robotic Telesurgery • Historic Companies and Systems • Existing surgical systems • Strengths and Limitations • Ethical and Safety Considerations • Challenges, Future and Conclusion

  3. Introduction(1) • Definition: Robotic systems for surgery • There are computer-integrated surgery (CIS) systems first, and “medical robots” second. The robot itself is just one element of a larger system designed to assist a surgeon in carrying out a surgical procedure..” [Taylor, 2003]

  4. Introduction(2) • CIS • Information flow in CIS

  5. Introduction(3) • Motivation: • Started with the weaknesses and strengths of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) • Smaller incisions, shorter post-operative time, reduced infection, faster rehabilitation, lesser pain, better cosmetics, ... • Eye-hand coordination, difficulty in moving arms, degree of motion

  6. Introduction(4) • MIS • Minimally invasive surgery uses techniques of surgical access and exposure that significantly reduce trauma to the body compared to traditional incisions.

  7. Classification • Depending on the degree of surgeon interaction during the procedure: • Supervisory-controlled; • Telesurgical; • Shared-control;

  8. Application of Medical Robotics(1) • Laboratory Robots • For pre-programmed tasks • High repetitions • Perform multiple-tests in parallel • Manufacturers include, Thermo Electron Corp, Hamilton Co, Central Research Laboratories (CRL), A Dover Diversified Co etc.

  9. Application of Medical Robotics(2) • Telesurgery • Surgeon sits at a console • Has controls to move the robotic arms • Does not operate on the patient directly • Mainly used in minimally invasive surgeries

  10. Application of Medical Robotics(3) • Surgical Training • Robots used as surgical training simulators • Used for medical resident students • Residents lack expertise and this helps in avoiding legal, social and economic problems • The Second Generation Robotic Telesurgical System for Laparoscopy during tests in the Experimental Surgery Lab at UC San Francisco

  11. Application of Medical Robotics(4) • Telemedicine and Teleconsultation • Telecommunciation channels to communicate with other physicians/patients • Control an external camera which in turn controls an endoscopic camera – used to share images with a remote surgeon

  12. Application of Medical Robotics(5) • Rehabilitation • Assistive robots • Wheelchair with intelligent navigational control system

  13. Application of Medical Robotics(6) • Remote surgery • Surgeon can be anywhere in the world • Remotely controls the robotic surgical system • Very useful for treating wounded people in battlefields

  14. Application of Medical Robotics(7) • Laparoscopic Surgery • Performed in the abdominal cavity using MIS • Abdomen cavity is expanded using CO2 • Uses Laparoscopic instrument • Fiber optic channels to illuminate the inside of abdominal cavity • Lens optics to transmit image • CCD camera at the outer end • Image displayed on high resolution TV

  15. Application of Medical Robotics(8) • Laparoscopic Surgery • Traditional laparoscope instruments have limitations • Has 4 DOFs - Arbitrary orientation of instrument tip not possible • Reduction in dexterity • Reduction in motion reversal due to fulcrum at entry point • Friction at air tight trocar – reduction in force feedback • Lack of tactile sensing

  16. Design of Robotic Telesurgery(1) • Minimally Invasive Surgery • Surgery performed by making small incisions < 10mm dia • Reduces post-operative pain and hospital stays • Form of telemanipulation • Instruments have a camera attached to transmit inside image to the surgeon

  17. Design of Robotic Telesurgery(2) • The Concept • Telerobotics is a natural tool to extend capabilities in MIS • The goal is to restore the manipulation and sensation capabilities of the surgeon • Using a 6 DOF slave manipulator, controlled through a spatially consistent and intuitive master

  18. Design of Robotic Telesurgery(3) • The Concept • Telesurgical system concept

  19. Design of Robotic Telesurgery(4) • Considerations: • Compatibility • Backdrivabilit • Actuator’s impedance • Actuators receive tool-to-tissue force • Loss of power can lead to dropping of a heavy tool and undesirable high accelerations in the actuator

  20. Design of Robotic Telesurgery(5) • Considerations: • Human-Machine Interface • Video system used to capture images inside the patient • Backlash-loss of motion between a set of movable parts • Choose the appropriate mechanism for the required transmission • Choose passive gravity balance over active gravity balance

  21. Design of Robotic Telesurgery(6) • Haptic Feedback • Sensation of touch lost in robotic surgery • Receiving haptic information and using it to control the robotic manipulators • Needed to achieve high fidelity • Types • Force (kinesthetic) feedback • Tactile (cutaneous) feedback

  22. Design of Robotic Telesurgery(7) • Haptic Feedback • Hand tie – tradition suturing mechanism • Instrument tie – estimate of performance (same type of feedback as resolved-force feedback) • Robotic tie – suturing task performed by da Vinci®

  23. Design of Robotic Telesurgery(8) • Haptic Feedback • Experimental results • Accuracy cannot be improved to the level of hand ties by using force feedback • Hand tie had the lowest NSD. Repeatability can be improved by using force feedback in robotic surgical systems • Both instrument and robot reduces the performance margin between expert and novice users

  24. Design of Robotic Telesurgery(9) • Haptic Feedback • Fidelity – ability to detect compliance variations in the environment • P (Position error) +FF (kinesthetic force feedback) control architecture – to determine if the use of force sensor on slave manipulator will provide fidelity

  25. Historic Companies and Systems(1) • First Robotic assisted surgery 1988 • – PUMA 560 • – Light duty industrial robotic arm to guide laser/needle for sterostactic brain surgery

  26. Historic Companies and Systems(2) • First Robotic urological surgery 1992 • – PROBOT-assisted TURP in Guy’s Hospital in London leaded by Wickham

  27. Historic Companies and Systems(3) • First commercially available robotic system, 1992 • – ROBODOC for orthopaedic hip surgery

  28. Historic Companies and Systems(4) • First RCT of transatlantic telerobotics surgery • – Between Guy’s and John Hopkins Hospitals • – PAKY-RCM percutaneous access robot (Kavoussi group developed in 1996)

  29. Existing surgical systems(1) • AESOP (Computer Motion), 1994 • – Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning – a voice-activated robotic arm for camera holder • – First approved surgical robotic system by FDA

  30. Existing surgical systems(2) • AESOP

  31. Existing surgical systems(3) • ZEUS (Computer Motion) • – Marketed in 1998

  32. Existing surgical systems(4) • Da Vinci (Intuitive Surgical) • – Initially developed by US Department of Defence in 1991 • – Intuitive Surgical acquired the prototype and commercialized the system • – Approved by FDA in July 2000

  33. Existing surgical systems(5) • Da Vinci Surgical® system by Intuitive Surgical, Inc.

  34. Existing surgical systems(6) • Da Vinci Surgical® system by Intuitive Surgical, Inc. • Surgical Console - 3D display and master control • Patient side cart - two or three instrument arms and one endoscope arm • EndoWrist Instrument - 7 DOFs, quick-release levers • InSite Vision System - high resolution 3D endoscope and image processing equipment

  35. Existing surgical systems(7) • Da Vinci Surgical® system by Intuitive Surgical, Inc.

  36. Existing surgical systems(8) • Da Vinci Surgical® system by Intuitive Surgical, Inc. • Video

  37. Existing surgical systems(9) • Advantages of Da Vinci Surgical®: • Technically • – Patented Endowrist: 6 degrees of movement • – 3-D vision (Dual channel endoscopy) and magnified view (x12) • – Tremor suppression and scaling of movement Surgeon • – Ergonomic advantage • – Shorter learning curve • Patient • – Better outcome

  38. Existing surgical systems(10) • Advantages:

  39. Existing surgical systems(11) • 6 degree movements

  40. Existing surgical systems(12) • Da Vinci surgical system in a general procedure setting

  41. Existing surgical systems(13) • daVinci® Surgical System U.S. Installed Base 1999 – 2008

  42. Strengths and Limitations(1) • Strengths: • Physical separation • Wrist action • Tremor elimination • Optional motion scaling • Three-dimensional stereoscopic image • Electronic information transfer (Telesurgery)

  43. Strengths and Limitations(2) • Limitation • Reluctance to accept this technology (trust) • Additional training • Fail proof? • Most of the sensors use IR transmission • Highly efficient visual instruments are needed • Cannot be pre-programmed • Task-specific robots are required • Latency in transmission of mechanical movements by the surgeon • Longer operating time

  44. Strengths and Limitations(3) • Limitation • Cost for the Da Vinci system: • The average base cost of a System is $1.5 million • Approximately $ 160,000 maintenance cost a year • Operating room cost, $150 per hour • Hospital stay cost, $600 per day • Time away from work, $120 per day

  45. Ethical and Safety Considerations • When there is a marginal benefit from using robots, is it ethical to impose financial burden on patients or medical systems? • If a robot-assisted surgery fails because of technical problems, is it the surgeon who is responsible or others?

  46. Challenges, Future and Conclusion • Haptic feedback • A safe, easy sterilizable, accurate, cheap and compact robot • Reliable telesurgical capabilities • Compatibility with available medical equipment and standardizing • Autonomous robot surgeons

  47. Reference • Robotics in surgery: history, current and future applications. New York: Nova Science Pub-. lishers; 2007 • J.E. Speich, J. Rosen, 'Medical Robotics,' In Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, pp. 983-993, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2004. • http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/medical/laparobot.html • http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/BI108_2005_Groups/04/index.html • http://faculty.cs.tamu.edu/dzsong/teaching/fall2005/cpsc689/

  48. Thanks!