Theory Models • Schramm’s Model- Field of Experience added to Shannon’s model • Ogden &Richard’s Triangle of Meaning • Referents • Newcomb’s Symmetry Model:
Models • Westley-MacLean Model:
Rhetoric • Classical Rhetoric Theory • People are rational decision makers • Conscious decision making with emotions • Logo, Ethos, Pathos • Contemporary Rhetoric Theory • Broader definition of rhetoric and “text” • Not all situations work- Eulogy vs. Graduation • No true objectivity
Interpersonal Communication • Easy to identify an issue • Hard to identify communication aspects • Individual motivations, experiences, beliefs • Understanding helps us: • Resolve conflict and engage people in desirable action • How do you communicate an involved topic to a low involvement audience? • How do you get people who have little frame of reference to see your view point? • How can differing viewpoints agree?
Our Characteristics • Dyad: 2 people in a social relationship • Move from impersonal to personal • Begin with self: • Self-image or self-concept • Who we are and where we are in social order • Other’s self-image of me • Personae • Personality (psychological traits) • Locus of Control (inner or outer directed) • Impressions management (how others see us)
Johari Window • Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham • Describes the process of human interaction through a four paned “window” that divides personal awareness into four types: Open, Hidden, Blind, and Unknown • Lines can move as interaction progresses
Staircase Model of Relational Development • Knapp & Vangelistis
Relationships • Impression Management • Face Management Theory • Goffman • Self-Presentation • Fostering an impression to others • Politeness Theory • Brown & Levinson • Positive Face- Desire to be valued and seen as competent • Negative Face- Desire to be free of imposition and constraint
Social Cognition • Bandura, 1965 • How and why we think about people including ourselves. • Self Efficacy and Self Regulation • A person's behavior is both influenced by and is influencing a person's personal factors and the environment • how people process social information, especially its encoding, storage, retrieval, and application to social situations
Schema • Cognitive structure that represents knowledge about a concept or type of stimulus- Susan Fiske • Person Scheme (“outgoing” “abrasive”) • Social Goals (revenge, love) • Role Schemas (“graduate student” “parent”) • Schemas guide memory and influence judgments • Schema versus evidence; cognitive dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance • Festinger, 1957 • People need cognitive consistency • 1) dissonance is psychologically uncomfortable enough to motivate people to achieve consonance, and • 2) in a state of dissonance, people will avoid information and situations that might increase the dissonance.
Attention • Two processes • Encoding- taking in information and making sense of it • Consciousness- awareness • Salience- when external objects capture our attention • Schema can engage this • Our casual attributions can be exaggerated • Our evaluations can be polarized
Self Identity • Baumeister • Interpersonal tool, make choices, regulation of self • Will remember information related to the self better than similar information lacking reference to the self • Social interaction and the self • We interpret events to increase our good qualities • Positive Illusions- Taylor & Brown- • Overestimate good qualities, control, and are more optimistic than warranted by objective circumstances • High self-esteem= take greater risks
Wednesday • Human Communication • Chapter 8-9 • Articles • Matrix • Wiki • http://agcommtheory.pbworks.com/