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First Aid. Steele Canyon High School ENS Department. First Aid Overview and Objectives. Basic review of common health issues that you may encounter in day to day life Sensible approach to understanding causative factors Care and treatment of various disease processes

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first aid

First Aid

Steele Canyon High School ENS Department

first aid overview and objectives
First Aid Overview and Objectives
  • Basic review of common health issues that you may encounter in day to day life
  • Sensible approach to understanding causative factors
  • Care and treatment of various disease processes
  • A tiny bit of humor added along the way…
allergic reaction anaphylaxis
Allergic Reaction/Anaphylaxis
  • An allergic reaction is an inflammatory process triggered by allergens.. Common allergens include animal dander from cats or dogs, airborne allergens like pollen, and various drugs such as penicillin and sulfa.
  • Allergies
    • Symptoms of allergic reactions include hives, tongue or facial swelling, sneezing, itchy eyes, nausea, vomiting, and rashes. Allergic reactions may range from mild, to life-threatening conditions such as anaphylaxis. in which the mouth and tongue may swell to a point that makes it difficult to breathe.
    • Physicians diagnose allergic reactions based on clinical signs and symptoms.
    • Allergic reactions are treated with medications like antihistamines and steroids.
    • For life-threatening allergic reactions, may have epinephrine pens available. The best treatment for allergic reactions is to avoid the allergen if at all possible
  • Immediate medical care (call 911) for serious symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as chest pain, chest tightness, difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, swelling in the throat or mouth, dizziness or unconsciousness, flushing with hives, or wheezing.
allergic reaction
Allergic Reaction

Scary enough to look at…

Imagine if it was on YOUR face!

allergic reaction anaphylaxis1
Allergic Reaction/Anaphylaxis
  • Anaphylaxis is a severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction. It can occur within seconds or minutes of exposure to something you're allergic to, such as a peanut or the venom from a bee sting.
  • The flood of chemicals released by your immune system during anaphylaxis can cause you to go into shock; your blood pressure drops suddenly and your airways narrow, blocking normal breathing. Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis include a rapid, weak pulse, a skin rash, and nausea and vomiting. Common triggers of anaphylaxis include certain foods, some medications, insect venom and latex.
  • Anaphylaxis requires an immediate trip to the emergency department and an injection of epinephrine. If anaphylaxis isn't treated right away, it can lead to unconsciousness or even death.

Life Threatening disease process…to both children and adults!

allergic reaction anaphylaxis2
Allergic Reaction/Anaphylaxis
  • Anaphylaxis symptoms usually occur within minutes of exposure to an allergen. Sometimes, however, anaphylaxis can occur a half-hour or longer after exposure. Anaphylaxis symptoms include:
  • Skin reactions, including hives along with itching, and flushed or pale skin (almost always present with anaphylaxis)
  • A feeling of warmth
  • The sensation of a lump in your throat
  • Constriction of the airways and a swollen tongue or throat, which can cause wheezing and trouble breathing
  • A weak and rapid pulse
  • Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
  • Dizziness or fainting
allergic reaction anaphylaxis3
Allergic Reaction/Anaphylaxis
  • What to do in an emergency

If you're with someone who is having an allergic reaction and shows signs of shock caused by anaphylaxis, act fast. Signs and symptoms of shock caused by anaphylaxis include pale, cool and clammy skin, weak and rapid pulse, trouble breathing, confusion, and loss of consciousness. Even if you're not sure symptoms are caused by anaphylaxis, take the following steps immediately:

    • Call 911 or emergency medical help.
    • Get the person in a comfortable position and elevate his or her legs.
    • Check the person's pulse and breathing and, if necessary, administer CPR or other first-aid measures.
    • Help give medications to treat an allergy attack, such as an epinephrine autoinjector or antihistamines, if the person has them.
assessing any situation and rescues
Assessing ANY Situation and Rescues

Is anyone in danger?

If yes, can the danger be easily managed? If it cannot, call for the emergency help and protect the scene.Move the quietest victim first (Usually this is a telling sign)

Gently shakes the shoulders and ask him or her a question.

If there is a response, treat any life-threatening condition before checking the next person.

If there is no response, check the airway.


assessment and actions
Assessment and Actions

**An unconscious person is always at risk of the airway becoming blocked by the tongue. There is also the possibility of choking on vomit. If there is mouth or internal injuries, a person may a choking on blood.

Most unconscious people are safest if placed in the

recovery position while waiting for help to arrive.

This position keeps the airway open

and allows liquids to drain from

the mouth.


If somebody is unconscious

(not responsive)

but breathing, your priorities are:

to ensure that they stay breathing by

keeping the airway; unblocked and

regularly looking, listening,

and feeling for breaths;

to treat any life-threatening injuries such as serious bleeding; and to call for an emergency help.

assessment and action
Assessment and Action


1. Kneel beside the victim. Ensure the airway is open by lifting the chin and tilting the head. Make sure both legs are straight, then place the arm nearest to you straight from the victim’s body.2. Bring the arm furthest away from you across the victim’s chest and hold the back of the hand against the cheek nearest to you.3. With your other hand, grasp the far leg just above the knee and pull it up, keeping the foot flat on the ground.4. Keeping the victim’s hand pressed against his or her cheek, pull on the far leg and roll the victim toward you and on to his or her side. 5. Tilt the head back so that the airway remains open. Call for emergency help if this has not already been done. Check the breathing regularly

assessment and action2
Assessment and Action


If the victim has been involved in an accident that involved a lot of force, such as a fall, tackle, strike from a blunt force object, or automobile accident, the back or neck may be injured. The priority in an unconscious person will always be ABC. If you suspect a person may have a neck or back injury, or other broken bones, you may wish to adjust the recovery position to minimize movement. Gently move the head to a position where vomit or blood can drain out. If you are concerned about breathing the person must be moved into a safer position.

assessment and action3
Assessment and Action

The priorities for an unconscious child are to ensure that the child stays breathing by keeping the airway clear, and to call 911. If an unconscious child is breathing, do a quick check for life-threatening injuries and treat if necessary, then turn the victim into the recovery position.HOW TO MOVE A CHILD INTO THE RECOVERY POSITION

1. Kneel beside the child. Ensure the airway is open by lifting the chin and tilting the head. Make sure both legs are straight, then place the arm nearest to you to straight out from the child’s body, with the elbow bent and the palm placing upward.2. Bring the arm furthest away from you across the child’s chest and hold the back of the hand against the cheek nearest you.3. With your other hand, grasp the child’s far leg just above the knee and pull it up, keeping the foot flat on the ground.4. Keeping the child’s hand pressed against her cheek, pull on the far leg and roll the child toward you and to her side.

5. Tilt the head back so that the airway remains open.

bleeding control
Bleeding Control
  • Severe bleeding requires direct, firm pressure to the affected area.
  • If possible, elevate the any bleeding extremity above the level of the heart.
  • Do NOT remove any imbedded object , unless it interferes with breathing or respirations.
  • Remember gloves are a protective barrier…that are a must to use.
  • ANY bloody or body fluids you come in contact with should be washed away with soap and water immediately.

Burns can be

Awful…painful…disfiguring…life changing!

  • Many avenues provide ways you can get burned. Certainly by heat and fire, radiation, sunlight, electricity or chemicals.
  • There are 3 degrees of burns:
      • 1st, 2nd, and 3rd degree.
burn 1st degree
Burn- 1st Degree
  • First-degree burns are red and painful. A sunburn is an excellent example. Occasionally, they swell a little. 1st degree burns “blanch” or turn white when you press on the skin. Damaged skin over the burn may peel away after 1 or 2 days, which makes you look like a lizard.
  • Treatment.  Soak the burn in cool water (NOT ice). Apply a skin care product like aloe vera cream or an antibiotic ointment. Protect the burned area with a dry gauze bandage or clean clothing. Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as Tylenol or Motrin can to help with the pain. Remember, sunscreen!
burn 1 st degree
Burn- 1st Degree
  • Red
  • Painful
  • Minimally invasive
  • Treatment
    • Stop the burn
    • Cool the burn
    • Cover the burn
burn 2nd degree
Burn-2nd Degree
  • Second-degree burns  are thicker burns, have associated blistering and are VERY painful. Multiple skin layers are damaged, the skin is very red or even splotchy, and it may swell significantly.   
  • Treatment. Soak the burn in cool water for 15 minutes. If the burned area is small, put a cool, clean, wet cloths on the burn , then apply an antibiotic cream, or other creams as prescribed by your doctor. Cover the burn with a clean, dry nonstick dressing held in place with gauze or tape. Check with your doctor's office to make sure you are up-to-date on tetanus booster.
  • Change the dressing every day. Remembering to wash your hands with soap and water before any dressing change . Be gentle as you wash the burn and put antibiotic ointment on it. Watch for signs of infection, such as increased pain, redness, swelling or pus. If you see any of these signs, see your doctor right away. Avoid breaking any blisters that form.
  • Burned skin itches as it heals. Keep your fingernails cut short and don't scratch the burned area. Burned areas will be sun sensitive for up to one year.
burn 2 nd degree
Burn- 2nd Degree
  • Red
  • Loss of skin
  • Blistering
  • Fluid filled
  • Painful
burns 3 rd degree
Burns- 3rd Degree
  • Third-degree burns cause damage to all layers of the skin. The burned skin looks white or charred black. These burns may cause little or no pain because the nerves in the skin are damaged.

Treatment.  For third-degree burns, go to the hospital right away. Don't take off any clothing that is stuck to the burn. Don't soak the burn in water or apply any ointment (do NOT use any home remedies…that involve food... No lemon juice, mayonnaise, Crisco, ice cubes,etc.). You can cover the burn with a sterile bandage or clean cloth until you receive medical assistance.

burn 3 rd degree
Burn-3rd Degree

Multiple skin layers involved


Minimal pain

Scarring extensive

Do not walk through fire!


Bruises ( Contusion, Ecchymosis, Hematoma)

  • A bruise is a mark on your skin caused by blood trapped under the surface. In trauma, injury crushes small blood vessels but does not break the skin. Those blood vessels break open, leaking blood under the skin’s surface.
  • Bruises are often painful and can become swollen. There are skin, muscle and bone bruises. Bone bruises are the most serious.
  • Healing can take months for fading to occur, but most last only about two weeks. Initially reddish in color, then turning bluish-purple, and finally greenish-yellow before returning to normal. Ice minimizes the injured area. Elevation above your heart is also helpful. Any bruise appearing to be infected, should be check by a physician.

People on blood thinners should be especially cautious with bruising!

  • ChokingFood or small objects can cause choking if they get caught in your throat and block your airway. This prohibits oxygen from traveling to your lungs and brain. When your brain goes without oxygen for more than four minutes, bad things begin to happen.
  • Young children are especially high risk for choking. They choke on common foods like hot dogs, nuts, grapes, and on many small items like toy pieces and coins. Keep small objects out of their reach and supervise them when they eat. 
choking maybe not
Choking…maybe not….
  • Not choking, but very messy! Supervise your children when they eat!!
  • To remove a lodged or stuck object in the throat, do NOT stick your fingers in anyone’s mouth UNLESS you can see the object clearly.
  • Removing or clearing an airway obstruction is best performed by utilizing the Heimlich Maneuver, which forces air from the stomach upwards to clear the object from the airway.
choking rescue techniques heimlich for adults
Choking Rescue Techniques- Heimlich for Adults
  • To perform the Heimlich maneuver:Stand behind him or her. Form a fist with one hand and place your fist, thumb side in, just below the person’s rib cage in the front. Grab your fist with your other hand. Keeping your arms off the person’s rib cage, give four quick inward and upward thrusts. You may have to repeat this several times until the obstructing object is coughed out.
  • If you're the only rescuer, perform the Heimlich maneuver before calling 911 for help. If another person is available, have that person call for help while you perform the Heimlich maneuver.
choking rescue techniques heimlich for adults1
Choking Rescue Techniques- Heimlich for Adults
  • Hands locked above the belly button.
  • Pressing upwards into the diaphragm.
  • Continue until the foreign body becomes dislodged.
choking rescue techniques heimlich for unconscious adults
Choking Rescue Techniques- Heimlich for Unconscious Adults
  • Heimlich maneuver on an unconscious person:If the person is lying down or unconscious, straddle him or her and place the heel of your hand just above the waistline. Place your other hand on top of this hand. Keeping your elbows straight, give four quick upward thrusts. You may have to repeat this procedure several times until the obstructing object is coughed out.
choking rescue techniques heimlich for unconscious adults1
Choking Rescue Techniques- Heimlich for Unconscious Adults
  • Heel of your hand above the waistline.
  • Elbows straight
  • Deliver 4 upward thrusts
  • Repeat as necessary
choking rescue technique heimlich on children
Choking Rescue Technique-Heimlich on Children
  • Heimlich maneuver on a child:Stand behind the child. With your arms around his or her waist, form a fist with one hand and place it, thumb side in, between the ribs and waistline. Grab your fist with your other hand. Keeping your arms off the child's rib cage, give four quick inward and upward thrusts. You may have to repeat this several times until the obstructing object is coughed out.
choking rescue technique heimlich on infants
Choking Rescue Technique-Heimlich on Infants
  • Heimlich maneuver on an  infant:Place the infant face down across your forearm (resting your forearm on your leg) and support the infant’s head with your hand. Give four forceful blows to the back with the heel of your hand. You may have to repeat this several times until the obstructing object is coughed out.  If this does not work, turn the baby over. With two fingers one finger width below an imaginary line connecting the nipples, give four forceful thrusts to the chest to a depth of 1 inch. You may have to repeat this several times until the obstructing object is coughed out.
cuts and scrapes
Cuts and Scrapes
  • Stop the bleeding. Minor cuts and scrapes usually stop bleeding on their own. If they don't, apply gentle pressure with a clean cloth or bandage. Hold the pressure continuously for 5 to 10 minutes. Don't keep checking to see if the bleeding has stopped because this may damage or dislodge the fresh clot that's forming and cause bleeding to start again. If the blood spurts out or continues to flow after continuous pressure, seek medical assistance.
  • Clean the wound. Rinse out the wound with clear water. Soap can irritate the wound, keep it out of the actual wound, if possible. Any dirt or debris remaining in the wound after washing, must be removed, or it will become an infection, or create a bigger scar. Use tweezers cleaned with soap and water to remove the particles. If debris remains deep in the wound after cleaning, see your doctor. Areas around the wound can be washed with soap, water and a cloth. No need for hydrogen peroxide, iodine or an iodine-containing cleanser, as these irritate living cells. If you choose to use them, don't apply them directly in the wound.
cuts and scrapes1
Cuts and Scrapes
  • Abrasions come in all sizes and shapes…

They only look bad, and are not life threatening!

cuts and scrapes2
Cuts and Scrapes
  • Apply an antibiotic. After you clean the wound, apply a thin layer of an antibiotic cream or ointment like Neosporin or Polysporin to help keep the surface moist. These don't make the wound heal faster, but they deter infection and allow the healing process to close the wound more normally.
  • Cover the wound. Bandages can help keep the wound clean keeping bacteria out. After the wound has healed enough to make infection unlikely, exposure to the air will increase wound healing.
  • Change the dressing. Change the dressing at least daily or whenever it becomes wet or dirty. If you're allergic to the adhesive used in most bandages, switch to adhesive-free dressings or sterile gauze held in place with paper tape, gauze roll or a loosely applied elastic (ACE) bandage. These supplies generally are available at pharmacies. (Do NOT hold dressings in place with rubber bands, hairclips, or shoelaces).
cuts and scrapes3
Cuts and Scrapes
  • Get stitches for deep wounds. A wound that cuts deeply through the skin or is gaping or jagged-edged and has fat or muscle exposed usually requires stitches or staples, A strip or two of surgical tape may hold a small cut together, but if you can't easily close the largest part of the wound, you must see your doctor as soon as possible. Proper closure within a few hours.
  • Watch for signs of infection. See your doctor if the wound isn't healing or you notice any redness, drainage, warmth or swelling.
  • Get a tetanus shot. Doctors recommend you get a tetanus shot every 10 years. If your wound is deep, dirty and your last shot was more than five years ago, your doctor may recommend a tetanus booster. Booster are usually required within 48 hours of the injury.

Cut and Scrapesand a Gnarly Head Laceration!Definitely needs sutures…Definitely needs a head CT..Definitely won’t be growing hair here for quite some time!

diabetic emergencies
Diabetic Emergencies
  • Diabetes mellitus is a medical condition in which the body is unable to effectively regulate the amount of sugar in the blood. The pancreas, an organ in the body) normally produces a hormone called insulin that regulates blood sugar level. In a person suffering from diabetes this does not happen effectively and as a result blood sugar levels become too high (this is known as hyperglycemia). Most diabetics control the condition through a combination of diet and injections of insulin. Too much insulin can lead to a condition known as hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).
diabetic emergencies1
Diabetic Emergencies

Low blood sugar level has a quick and serious effect on the brain. Most commonly it is caused by somebody with diabetes either taking too much insulin, or taking the right amount of insulin and then either not eating enough or burning off sugar through vigorous exercise.

diabetic emergencies2
Diabetic Emergencies


History of diabetes (sometimes a diabetic suffering a hypoglycemia attack is often confused or aggressive and may not admit to having a diabetes)


Feeling faint or dizzy

Strange behavior: confusion, aggression, or even violence

Pale, cold, sweaty skin

Rapid loss of unconsciousness

Shallow breathing

Evidence of diabetes, e.g. medic alert, sugar solution, or syringe in pocket

Evidence of recent heavy exercise or drinking

diabetic emergencies3
Diabetic Emergencies


If the person is unconscious, watch the airway and breathing, respond 911. If the person is fully conscious, help him to sit down or to lie down with the shoulders raised. Give something high in sugar and easy to consume, such as chocolate or a sugary drink. If this marks an improvement, give more. If the condition does not improve, seek medical advice. Stay with the person until he recovers. If the condition continues to deteriorate or does not improve, call 911.

diabetic emergencies4
Diabetic Emergencies
  • It is not unusual for diabetes to be mistaken for other common situations such as drunkenness, substance abuse. The treatment in all these situations is to monitor and maintain the airway. Use the recovery position if the person becomes unconscious, and seek medical advice or call emergency help.
  • Do not make assumptions as to the cause of the problem. Somebody who is drunk may also be suffering from head injury; the syringe in a person’s coat may be for diabetic medication or for drug abuse. While you do not need to know the cause the medical staff do and any clues that you can hand over could be potentially life-saving. Please do not hide important information from caregivers.
drinking and driving
Drinking and Driving

Pardon me

Mr. Fireman…

Can I park my

3 ton helicopter


I’ll just be a minute!!

drinking and driving1
Drinking and Driving

This is as real as it gets..

Everyday, somewhere,

Healthcare People…

Like those on Mercy Air

Wait patiently

hour by hour …

To address the consequences

Of EVERY action you make!


  • Drowning Treatment
  • Call 911 if: 

Someone is drowning

  • 1. Get Help

Notify a lifeguard, adult, teacher, if one is close. If not, ask someone to call 911.

If you are alone, follow the steps below.

2. Take the person out of the water.


3. Check for Breathing

Place your ear next to the person's mouth and nose. Do you feel air on your cheek?

Look to see if the person's chest is moving.

4. If the Person is Not Breathing, Check Pulse

Check the person's pulse for 10 seconds.

5. If There is No Pulse, Start CPR

Carefully place person on back.

For an adult or child, place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest at the nipple line. You can also push with one hand on top of the other. For an infant, place two fingers on the breastbone.

For an adult or child, press down about 2 inches. Make sure not to press on ribs. For an infant, press down about 1 inch. Make sure not to press on end of breastbone.

Do 30 chest compressions, at the rate of 100 per minute or more. Let the chest rise completely between pushes.

Check to see if the person has started breathing.


6. Repeat if Person Is Still Not Breathing

If you've been trained in CPR, you can now open the airway by tilting the head back and lifting the chin. Pinch the nose of the victim closed. Take a normal breath, cover the victim's mouth with yours to create an airtight seal, and then give 2 one-second breaths as you watch for the chest to rise.

Give 2 breaths followed by 30 chest compressions.

Continue this cycle of 30 compressions and 2 breaths until the person starts breathing or emergency help arrives.



attempt a water rescue of a

drowning person by

jumping in the water….

if you have not been trained!

AND NEVER…EVER attempt an in-water rescue

If you can not swim!

ONLY Use Rescue Aides!!

  • Electrocution
    • The insult from an electrical shock is dependant on the voltage, the current path traveled through the body, the person's overall health.
  • Call 911 immediately if any of these signs or symptoms occur:
    • Cardiac arrest (WOW…there’s a surprise)!
    • Heart rhythm problems, racing heart, fluttering in the chest (arrhythmias)
    • Respiratory failure (inability to breathe, or shortness of breath)
    • Muscle pain, contractions, open fractures or open wound (indicative of where the electricity may have left the body)
    • Seizures
    • Numbness and tingling
    • Unconsciousness


  • While waiting for medical help, follow these steps:
  • Look first. Don't touch. The person may still be in contact with the electrical source. Touching the person may pass the current through you.
  • Turn off the source of electricity if possible. If not, move the source away from you and the affected person, using a non-conducting object made of cardboard, plastic or wood.
  • Check for signs of circulation (breathing, coughing or movement). If absent, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately.
  • Prevent shock. Lay the person down and, if possible, position the head slightly lower than the body, and elevate the legs.

Exit wound

out through the


eye injuries
EYE Injuries
  • First Aid Procedures for Eye Injuries

Administering the right first aid procedures when dealing with eye injury is vital in preventing permanent damage and even blindness.

  • Chemicals
    • If a chemical or toxin gets into the eye, immediately flush the eye with clean, drinkable water. Open the eye as wide as you can and pour the water over it. If a container is not available, wash your hands quickly and use them to help flush the eye. Continue to flush the eye for up to 15 minutes. Do not bandage the eye after it has been flushed, as chemicals may become trapped. Seek medical attention.
  • Cuts and Punctures
    • If the eyeball or eyelid become punctured or cut in anyway, do not try to flush the eye. Medical attention is required immediately. In the meantime, cover the eye with a rigid eye shield. If you do not have an eye shield, the bottom half of a paper cup can be used.
  • Foreign Objects
    • If a foreign object becomes stuck in the eye, let the eye tear in an effort to naturally flush it out. The alternative is to flush the eye with clean, drinkable water. If irritation persists, examine the eye to locate the object. Pull down the lower lid and look up, then hold the upper lid while looking down. Do not rub the eye, as this can lodge the object into the eyeball and require medical extraction. If flushing with water does not work, lightly bandage the eye and seek medical attention.
  • Medical Consultation
    • Because actions that are taken soon after eye injury occurs can be the difference between sight and blindness, it is very important to consult a doctor or medical professional if irritation persists.
  • Fracture
    • A fracture is a broken bone. It requires medical attention. If the broken bone is the result of a major trauma or injury, call 911 or your local emergency number.
    • Also call for emergency help if:
      • The person is unresponsive, isn't breathing or isn't moving. Begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if there's no respiration or heartbeat.
      • There is heavy bleeding.
      • Even gentle pressure or movement causes pain.
      • The limb or joint appears deformed.
      • The bone has pierced the skin.
      • The extremity of the injured arm or leg, such as a toe or finger, is numb or bluish at the tip.
      • You suspect a bone is broken in the neck, head or back.
      • You suspect a bone is broken in the hip, pelvis or upper leg (for example, the leg and foot turn outward abnormally, compared with the uninjured leg).
  • There are several different categories of fractures:
    • Simple fracture
      • Single Inline break
    • Complex fractures
      • Multiple angle breaks
    • Compound fractures
      • See Kevin Ware video
      • Open wound, exposed bone
      • Require surgical intervention

Symptoms of a

fracture are:

  • Out-of-place limb
  • Joint Swelling,
  • Bruising or bleeding
  • Intense pain
  • Numbness and tingling
  • Limited mobility or inability to move a limb
fracture care
Fracture Care
  • Take these actions immediately while waiting for medical help:
  • Stop any bleeding. Apply pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage, a clean cloth or a clean piece of clothing.
  • Immobilize the injured area. Don't try to realign the bone.
  • Apply ice packs to limit swelling and help relieve pain until emergency personnel arrive. Don't apply ice directly to the skin — wrap the ice in a towel, piece of cloth or some other material.
  • Treat for shock. If the person feels faint or is breathing in short, rapid breaths, lay the person down with the head slightly lower than the trunk and, if possible, elevate the legs.
fracture reminders
Fracture Reminders
  • Remember ICE:
    • "I" is for ice - if possible apply an ice pack or ice cubes to the injured area. This will keep down the swelling and reduce pain.
    • "C" is for compression - if the wound is bleeding, apply direct pressure with a clean cloth to reduce blood flow. "E" is for elevation - try to keep the injured area as high above heart level as possible. This will reduce blood flow to the injury and minimize swelling.
  • In cold temperatures, skin and underlying tissues may freeze, resulting in frostbite. The areas most likely to be affected by frostbite are your hands, feet, nose and ears.
  • If your skin looks white or grayish-yellow, is very cold and has a hard or waxy feel, you may have frostbite. Your skin may also itch, burn or feel numb. As the area thaws, the flesh becomes red and painful.
  • Gradually warming the affected skin is key to treating frostbite
    • Protect your skin from further exposure. If you're outside, warm frostbitten hands by tucking them into your armpits. Protect your face, nose or ears by covering the area with dry, gloved hands. Don't rub the affected area and never rub snow on frostbitten skin.
    • Get out of the cold. Once you're indoors, remove wet clothes.
    • Gradually warm frostbitten areas. Put frostbitten hands or feet in warm water Wrap or cover other areas in a warm blanket. Don't use direct heat, such as a stove, heat lamp, fireplace or heating pad, because these can cause burns before you feel them on your numb skin.
    • Don't walk on frostbitten feet or toes if possible. This further damages the tissue.
    • Get emergency medical help. If numbness or sustained pain remains during warming or if blisters develop, seek medical attention.




head injury
Head Injury
  • Head Injury
    • Millions of people in the U.S. sustain head and brain injuries yearly. Some are minor because the skull is thick and good at protecting the brain. More than half however, are bad enough that people must go to the hospital. Serious head injuries can lead to permanent brain damage or death. Symptoms of minor head injuries usually go away without treatment. Serious head injuries need emergency treatment and care.
head injuries
Head Injuries
  • Where do Head Injuries come from??
    • Football, Track
    • Baseball, Cross Country
    • Soccer, La Crosse
    • Wrestling, Band **If you don’t move, you
    • Softball, Flag Corp may be safe in
    • Gymnastics, Dance in show choir..
    • Cheerleading,
    • Basketball
    • Volleyball
    • Even the pool has potential to create a head injury!
head injury1
Head Injury
  • Dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance if any of the following signs are apparent:
    • A headache that gets worse or does not go away
    • Repeated vomiting or nausea
    • Convulsions or seizures
    • An inability to awaken from sleep
    • Dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes
    • Slurred speech
    • Weakness or numbness in the arms or legs
    • Loss of coordination
    • Increased confusion, restlessness or agitation  
head injury2
Head injury
  • Stop any bleeding. Apply firm pressure to the wound with sterile gauze or a clean cloth. Don't apply direct pressure to the wound if you suspect a skull fracture.
  • Watch for changes in breathing and alertness. If the person shows no signs of circulation (breathing, coughing or movement), begin CPR.
  • If severe head trauma occurs:

Keep the person still. Until medical help arrives, keep the person who sustained the injury lying down and quiet. Don't move the person unless necessary and avoid moving the person's neck.

head injury3
Head Injury



the head with a stick will do it too…

  • Pictures of head injuries
heart attack myocardial infarction
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)

Heart Attack

This medical condition is also known as a myocardial infarction and it is a situation where a coronary artery from the heart is totally blocked . The cardiac muscle is not getting enough blood. It is a very serious situation, one which can result in death very quickly. In fact, it is the number one cause of death in adults in North America.

heart attack myocardial infarction1
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)
  • Signs and Symptoms of a Heart Attack
  • The major symptom of a heart attack is chest pain or discomfort that persists for 10 minutes or more. This pain may be similar to pain caused by indigestion or muscle spasms. Stabbing chest pains or pain that gets worse when you bend or breathe deeply is usually not caused by a heart attack. Other common signs of a heart attack are:
    • Severe pain in the chest, arms, shoulders, neck, and even the upper back.
    • Tightness/ discomfort in

the upper body.

    • Feeling weak or tired.
    • Nausea or vomiting.
    • Fast irregular pulse.
    • Excessive sweating, moist face.
    • Shortness of breath.
    • Unconsciousness.
    • Pale, bluish skin.
heart attack myocardial infarction2
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)
  • Causes of Heart Attacks
    • Heart Disease causes are complex, but it basically is plaque building up inside the walls of the arteries preventing adequate blood from getting through. Plaque builds up over time and there are many risk factors that can increase the chance of build-up. Risk factors are long term activities that can include:
      • Smoking
      • Lack of exercise
      • Obesity
      • Poor eating habits.
      • High Blood Pressure (hypertension).
      • Genetics
      • Gender
      • Age
      • Diabetes
heart attack myocardial infarction3
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)
  • Women may feel no chest pain at all.
  • Women are more likely to deny treatment than men.
  • Men are more likely to believe the symptoms to be gas or indigestion.
  • Hormones, stress, and poor medical health are all contributing factors to a heart attack.
heart attack myocardial infarction4
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)
  • Prevention
    • Preventing heart attacks involves modifying the risk factors so coronary artery disease does not happen. Along with health behavior, getting regular check-ups can also help detect problems before a heart attack occurs.
heart attacks myocardial infarctions
Heart Attacks (Myocardial Infarctions)
  • First Aid for Heart Attacks
  • If you believe someone is having a heart attack, you should;
  • Immediately call 9-1-1 and wait with the person.
  • Make the person comfortable (e.g. semi-sitting)
  • Ask them if they have any medical conditions or if they have any medications they normally take for this.
  • Suggest taking 2 baby aspirin if they are not allergic.
  • Keep them warm.
  • Do not give them any food or drinks.
  • If they become unconscious, and you are trained, begin rescue breathing and/or CPR
heat emergencies
Heat Emergencies
  • Heat-related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or any situation that involves extreme heat. Young children and the elderly are most at risk, but anyone can be affected.
  • Here you will find information about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion.
  • Heat Cramps
  • Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the legs and stomach area.
  • To treat, have the person rest in a cool place and give small amounts of cool water, juice or a commercial sports liquid. (Do not give liquids if the person is unconscious.)
  • Gently stretch and massage the affected area.
  • Do not administer salt tablets.
  • Check for signs of heat stroke or exhaustion.
heat stroke and heat exhaustion
Heat Stroke and Heat Exhaustion
  • Heat Stroke and Exhaustion
    • Early heat exhaustion symptoms include cool, moist, pale or flushed skin; headache; dizziness; weakness; feeling exhausted; heavy sweating; cramps, and nausea.
    • Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, dry skin; fainting; a rapid, weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; vomiting; and increased body temperature of more than 104 degrees. A change in level of consciousness may occur.
    • People with these symptoms should immediately rest in a cool, shaded place and (if conscious) drink plenty of non-alcoholic, non-caffeinated fluids.
    • Apply cool, wet cloths or water mist while fanning the person.
    • Call 911.
    • For late stage heat stroke symptoms, cool the person further by positioning ice or cold packs on wrists, ankles, groin and neck and in armpits.
    • Administer CPR if the person becomes unconscious.
  • Hypothermia
    • Exposure to cold temperatures or to cool, damp environments for long periods, your body's control mechanisms may not be able to keep your body temperature normal. Hypothermia can result. Hypothermia is when your internal body temperature is less than 95°F, with gradual symptoms such as shivering, slurred speech, slow breathing, cold, pale skin, loss of coordination, fatigue, lethargy, or apathy. Children and elderly people have a higher risk of developing hypothermia.
  • First Aid for Hypothermia:
    • Call 911 and monitor the person while waiting for help to arrive.
    • If you are able to, move the person out of the cold or attempt to protect the person from the wind and cold ground.
    • Remove all wet clothing, cover with a warm, dry coverings. Never apply direct heat like a hot-water bottle or heating pad; use warm packs applied to the neck, chest wall, and groin.
    • Avoid attempting to warm the arms and legs, because the heat will force cold blood back to the heart, lungs, and brain, causing a drop in the core body temperature that can be fatal.
    • If the person is not vomiting, give them warm, nonalcoholic drinks. Handle the person gently, don't massage or rub them because a person with hypothermia is at risk of cardiac arrest.
  • Nosebleed
  • Nosebleeds are common. Most often they are a nuisance and not a true medical problem, caused by little fingers. But they can become a problem.
  • Among children and young adults, nosebleeds usually originate from the septum, just inside the nose. The septum separates your nasal chambers.
  • In middle aged and older adults, nosebleeds can begin from the septum, but they may also begin deeper in the nose's interior. It may be caused by high blood pressure. Nosebleeds often begin spontaneously and are often difficult to stop. Sometimes they require a specialist's help.
  • To take care of a nosebleed:
    • Sit upright. By remaining upright, you reduce blood pressure in the veins of your nose. This discourages further bleeding. 
    • Pinch your nose. Use your thumb and index finger and breathe through your mouth. Continue the pinch for five to 10 minutes. This maneuver sends pressure to the bleeding point on the nasal septum and often stops the flow of blood.
    • To prevent rebleeding after bleeding has stopped, don't pick or blow your nose and don't bend down until several hours after the bleeding episode. Keep your head higher than the level of your heart.
  • Seek medical care immediately if:
    • The bleeding lasts for more than 20 minutes  
    • The nosebleed follows an accident, a fall or an injury to your head, including a punch in the face that may have broken your nose.
  • Nose bleeds can sustain major blood loss.
  • Persons taking blood thinners should seek medical attention immediately if they develop a nose bleed.
puncture wounds
Puncture Wounds
  • Puncture Wounds
  • A puncture wound — such as results from stepping on a nail or being stuck with a tack — can be dangerous because of the risk of infection. The object that caused the wound may carry spores of tetanus or other bacteria, especially if the object had been exposed to the soil. Puncture wounds resulting from human or animal bites, including those of domestic dogs and cats, may be especially prone to infection. Puncture wounds on the foot are also more vulnerable to infection.
puncture wounds1
Puncture Wounds…

I am fairly certain…this does NOT belong here!

punctures wounds
Punctures Wounds
  • Stop the bleeding. Minor cuts and scrapes usually stop bleeding on their own. If they don't, apply gentle pressure with a clean cloth or bandage. If bleeding persists — if the blood spurts or continues to flow after several minutes of pressure — seek emergency assistance.
  • Clean the wound. Rinse the wound well with clear water. A tweezers cleaned with alcohol may be used to remove small, superficial particles. If larger debris still remains more deeply embedded in the wound, see your doctor. Thorough wound cleaning reduces the risk of tetanus. To clean the area around the wound, use soap and a clean washcloth.
  • Apply an antibiotic. After you clean the wound, apply a thin layer of an antibiotic cream or ointment to help keep the surface moist. These products don't make the wound heal faster, but they can discourage infection and allow your body to close the wound more efficiently. Certain ingredients in some ointments can cause a mild rash in some people. If a rash appears, stop using the ointment.
punctures wounds1
Punctures Wounds
  • Cover the wound. Exposure to air speeds healing, but bandages can help keep the wound clean and keep harmful bacteria out.
  • Change the dressing regularly. Do so at least daily or whenever it becomes wet or dirty. If you're allergic to the adhesive used in most bandages, switch to adhesive-free dressings or sterile gauze and hypoallergenic paper tape, which doesn't cause allergic reactions. These supplies are generally available at pharmacies.
  • Watch for signs of infection. See your doctor if the wound doesn't heal or if you notice any redness, drainage, warmth or swelling.
punctures bite wounds
Punctures/Bite Wounds
  • Bite Wounds
  • For minor wounds. If the bite barely breaks the skin and there is no danger of rabies, treat it as a minor wound. Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water. Apply an antibiotic cream to prevent infection and cover the bite with a clean bandage.
  • For deep wounds. If the animal bite creates a deep puncture of the skin or the skin is torn and bleeding, apply pressure with a clean, dry cloth to stop the bleeding and see your doctor.
  • For infection. If you notice signs of infection such as swelling, redness, increased pain or oozing, see your doctor immediately.  
puncture bite wounds
Puncture/Bite Wounds
  • Domestic pets cause most animal bites. Dogs are more likely to bite than cats. Cat bites, however, are more likely to cause infection. Bites from non-immunized domestic animals and wild animals carry the risk of rabies. Rabies is more common in raccoons, skunks, bats and foxes than in cats and dogs. If an animal bites you, thoroughly clean the wound by washing with soap and water as soon as possible. A light scrubbing should occur during the wash. Place a clean, dry bandage over the area. This treatment should never replace proper evaluation by a doctor.

A seizure is a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain that usually affects how a person feels or acts for a short time.

Some seizures are hardly noticed. During other seizures,

the person may become unconscious, fall to the floor, and jerk violently for several minutes.

Many people (including some people with seizures) think that the only real seizures are ones with strong, uncontrolled movements. However, this is not true. All interruptions in electrical brain activity big or small, are seizures.

seizures care
Seizures Care
  • Many seizure types involve relatively brief episodes of unresponsiveness and don’t require any specific first-aid measures.
    • Stay calm NEVER PANIC!
    • Prevent injury, do not put anything into the persons mouth (especially fingers)During the seizure, you can exercise your common sense by insuring there is nothing within reach that could harm the person if she struck it.
    • Pay attention to the length of the seizure
    • Do not hold the person downIf the person having a seizure thrashes around there is no need for you to restrain them. Remember to consider your safety as well
  • Do not give the person water, pills, or food until fully alert
  • If the seizure lasts for longer than five minutes, call 911
  • After the seizure, the person should be placed on her left side. Keep in mind there is a small risk of post-seizure vomiting.
  • Be supportive
seizures therapies
Seizures Therapies

Seizure therapies include neurological workups to determine the cause of the seizures.

Medications to control the outward signs of the seizure.

Identified seizure foci on a head scan..see the arrows??



  • A severe loss of body fluid will lead to a drop in blood pressure. Eventually the blood’s circulation will deteriorate and the remaining blood flow will be directed to the vital organs such as the brain. Blood will therefore be directed away from the outer area of the body, so the victim will appear pale and the skin will feel cold and clammy.
  • As blood flow slows, so does the amount of oxygen reaching the brain. The victim may appear to be confused, weak, and dizzy, and may eventually deteriorate into unconsciousness. Body systems try to compensate for this lack of oxygen, the heart and breathing rates both speed up, gradually becoming weaker, and may eventually cease.Potential causes of shock include: severe internal or external bleeding; burns; severe vomiting and diarrhea, especially in children and the elderly; problems with the heart.
  • • Pale, cold, and clammy skin• Fast, weak pulse• Fast, shallow breathing• Dizziness and weakness• Confusion• Unconsciousness• Breathing and heartbeat stoppingShock kills, so it is vital that you can recognize these signs and symptoms. With internal bleeding in particular, shock can occur some time after an accident, so if a person with a history of injury starts to display these symptoms coupled with any of the symptoms of internal bleeding, advise her to seek urgent medical attention. Or take or send her to hospital.
Shock this???

  • • Warmth• Air• Rest• Mental rest• Treatment• HelpWarmth
  • Keep the victim warm but do not allow them to get overheated. Wrap blankets and coats around if cool outside, paying particular attention to the head, through which much body heat is lost.Air
  • Maintain careful eye on the victim’s airway and be prepared to turn them into the recovery position if necessary, or even to resuscitate if breathing stops. Try to keep back bystanders and loosen tight clothing to allow maximum air to victim.Rest
  • Keep the victim still and preferably sitting or lying down. If the victim is very giddy, lay them down with her legs raised to ensure that maximum blood and oxygen is sent to the brain.Mental rest
  • Reassure the victim but keep your comments realistic. Let the victim know that everything that can be done is being done and that help has been called for.
  • Treatment
  • Treat the cause of the shock and aim to prevent further fluid loss.Help
  • Ensure that appropriate medical help is on the way.

Shock states do not wait for the best time…or appropriate place!

Be ready to think quick and act fast!

strains and sprains
Strains and Sprains
  • When you twist an ankle, you probably don't care whether you call it a strain or a sprain, it just hurts. But there is a difference between the two!
  • A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon, a sprain is an injury to a ligament. Structurally and functionally tendons and ligaments do different jobs. Strains and sprains are classified by degrees of severity, from first to third degree. The differences reflect the degree of overstretching or damaging to the tendon, muscle or ligament.
  • First degree: This is a stretching of the tissue (a sprain in ligaments, or strain in tendons) without tearing the fibers. It is characterized by pain and loss of function of the tissue or body part. There is minimal to no swelling.
  • Second degree: This is the stretching and partial tearing of fibers. It is characterized by pain, swelling, bruising and moderate to severe loss of function of the tissue or body part.
  • Third degree: This is the complete tear or rupture of the structure. It is characterized by severe pain, severe bruising and loss of function of the body part.
strains and sprains1
Strains and Sprains

1. Control Swelling With RICE Therapy (Not REAL rice….)

Rest the sprained or strained area. If necessary, use a sling for an arm injury or crutches for a leg or foot injury. Splint an injured finger or toe by taping it to a finger or toe.

Ice for 20 minutes every hour. Never apply ice directly to skin.

Compress by wrapping an elastic (Ace) bandage or sleeve lightly (not tightly) around the joint or limb.

Elevate the area above heart level.

2. Manage Pain and Inflammation

Over-the-counter pain meds work well, like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) or aspirin. Do not give aspirin to anyone under age 18. Tylenol can be a good choice.

strains and sprains2
Strains and Sprains

3. See a Health Care Provider

All but minor strains and sprains should be evaluated by a health care provider. Consult a health care provider as soon as possible if there are symptoms of a possible broken bone:

There is a "popping" sound with the injury.

The person can't move the injured joint or limb.

The limb buckles when the injured joint is used.

There is numbness.

There is significant swelling, pain, fever, or open cuts.

4. Follow Up

Continue RICE for 24 to 48 hours.

The health care provider may need to immobilize the limb or joint with a splint, cast, or other device until healing is complete.

  • A stroke also known as a cerebrovascular accident or CVA, is a condition, which occurs when blood vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood to the brain rupture and part of the brain does not receive the blood flow it requires. The nerve cells deprived of oxygen in the affected area of the brain are then unable to function causing them to die within minutes. The traumatic effects of a stroke are often permanent, because brain cells are not replaced.

Facial droop usually on one side of the face only…

  • Here are the most common signs and symptoms to look for related to strokes.
  • -The victim of a stroke commonly experiences weakness, numbness or paralysis of the face, arm or leg on one side of the body.
  • -The victim may express that their vision has blurred or decreased, especially in one eye.
  • -The victim may have problems speaking or understanding.
  • -The victim may complain of having a severe, sudden and unexplainable headache.
  • -The brain may be affected by a lack of oxygen causing the victim deviation of the eyes. Therefore the pupils would become unequal in size and non-reactive to light.
  • First aid for a victim suffering from a stroke is limited to supportive care until medical assistance arrives. Yet, do not underestimate this role. Caring for the victim with a calming presence and collecting important medical data to pass onto emergency medical personnel is very important.
  • Insure the airway is open and clear.
  • Provide physical support to the patient if one side of the body is not responding. Lying down with the head slightly elevated is best.
  • Give nothing by mouth, as the victim may not be capable of swallowing, or tolerating secretions.
911 resources
911 Resources
  • Dialing 911 is the single greatest activation of emergency resources.
  • Cellular 911 calls are received by California Highway Patrol and routed from their site. (You MUST know where you are)!
  • Home 911 activations route through the emergency dispatch jurisdiction for the home locale. (You don’t need to know where you are)!
911 resources1
911 Resources
  • Emergency calls are forwarded for response as quickly as possible, but dispatchers may stay on the line, and give instructions to the caller.
  • If you are UNSURE what to do in a crisis or emergency, ASK the dispatcher for guidance. They can instruct on CPR, bleeding control, child birth, seizure care, altered level of consciousness, and much, much more.
the end
The End…

Thank you for your attention…

RahRah Cougars!!