Future Challenges for NTUMCAA-NA: Turning Crises Into New Opportunities 2012年北美臺大醫學院校友 The 32ND Annual Convention, NTUMCAA-NA Ming T. Tsuang, MD, PhD, D.Sc. Behavioral Genomics Endowed Chair and University Professor, University of California; Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry and Director, Center for Behavioral Genomics, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego andDirector, Harvard Institute of Psychiatric Epidemiology and Genetics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston.
NTU’s Integrated Brain and Mind Project • National Taiwan University (NTU) is the best university, and has the best hospital in Taiwan. • It attracts numerous clinical cases thanks to it’s reputation. • This offers excellent opportunities to all clinical, cognitive, neuroimaging, and basic neuroscientists. • NTU has the unique potential to study culture and cognition in the integrated context of “mind in a social brain” when we consider the expertise congregated in our medical, cognitive, and engineering departments.
NTU’s Integrated Brain and Mind Project • In 2009 I was asked by President Si-Chen Lee of National Taiwan University (NTU) and Chancellor Mary Anne Fox of UC San Diego to be the UCSD representative on a new and exciting collaborative project involving both institutions. • The project endeavored to integrate the disciplines of neurobiology, cognitive science, clinical neuroscience as well as behavioral sciences, within the six colleges of NTU.
NTU’s Integrated Brain and Mind Project • Between May 9th-11th, 2010, the first International Scientific Advisory Committee (ISAC) meeting for NTU’s Integrated Brain and Mind Project took place in Taipei. • Internationally renowned scholars were invited to join this committee to share their experiences and give advice on the development of the project.
Patricia Churchland Ph.DEmeritus Professor of Philosophy, UC San DiegoResearch Area: Neurophilosophy, Neuroethics. Cheng Ming Chuong MD, Ph.D Professor Pathology Dept. University Southern California Research Area: Tissue Development and Regeneration. Academician, Academia Sinica. • Larry R. Squire, Ph.D.Professor of Psychiatry, Neurosciences,and Psychology, UCSD. • Research Area: Structure and Organization of Memory.
Ing-Kang Ho, Ph.D. Distinguished Investigator and Vice PresidentInstitute of Population Health SciencesNational Health Research Institutes, Taiwan.Research Area: Neurotoxicology, Neuropharmacology, Drug Abuse. Academician, Academia Sinica. Trevor Robbins Ph.D, F.R.S. Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience Downing College, University of Cambridge Research Area: Cognitive Neuroscience, Psychopharmacology, Addiction Ian Everall MD, Ph.D Cato Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Australia Research Area: Neuropathology and Psychiatry
Shu Chien, MD, Ph.D,Professor of Bioengineering and Medicine, Director, Institute of Engineering in Medicine, UC San Diego Research Area: Integrative Bioengineering and Physiology Awardee: National Medal of Science, 2011. • Academician, Academia Sinica. William Mobley MD, PhD Chair, Department of Neurosciences UC San Diego Research Area: Neural Circuits, Neurobiology of Down’s Syndrome, Alzheimer's Disease, and Compassion.
Ming T. Tsuang, MD, PhD, D.Sc.Distinguished University Professor, University of California;Behavioral Genomics Chair and Director, Center for Behavioral Genomics,Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego andDirector, Harvard Institute of Psychiatric Epidemiology and Genetics, Harvard Medical School and Harvard School of Public Health. Chairman, International Scientific Advisory Committee, NTU’s Integrated Brain and Mind Science Project Academician, Academia Sinica. Research Area: Behavioral Genetics and Genomics, Prevention of Mental Illness, and Well Being
NTU’s Integrated Brain and Mind Project • Three autonomous institutions fall under the umbrella of the Integrated Brain and Mind Science Project. • The three institutions are: • The NTU Neurobiology and Cognitive Science Center (NCSC). • The NTU Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Science (GIBMS). • The National Taiwan University Hospital Clinical Center of Neuroscience and Behavior (CCNB).
President Lee at the Neurobiology and Cognitive Science Center’s Opening.
The Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Sciences (GBMS) is the newest institution authorized by the Ministry of Education. • It was established with the following purposes: • Doctoral/post doctoral education. • Advanced research. • Multi disciplinary collaborations.
Researchers at the GIBMS are attempting to bridge disciplinary boundaries to further the understanding of the origins, evolution and mechanisms of human cognition. • They will explore the brain's physical and biochemical machinery to the experiences and behaviors we call the mind.
The NTUH Clinical Center of Neuroscience and Behavior (CCNB). • The mission is to integrate and collaborate (inter and extra-institutionally) on various fields of clinical neuroscience and psychiatry. • These fields include: • Neuroradiology • Neurosurgery • Cerebrovascular diseases • Neuro-Oncology • NeuroimpairmentandRecovery • Neuropsychiatry • Neurodegeneration and Dementia • Child Neurological Diseases
Clinical Center of Neuroscience and Behavior (CCNB) Opening Ceremony, May 27th, 2011.
The Brain The Brain
Brain Atrophy and its Effects • Gray matter is a major component of the central nervous system. • It contains neural cell bodies, in contrast to white matter, which does not and mostly contains myelinated axon tracts. • Significant positive correlations have been found between grey matter volume in elderly persons and measures of semantic and short-term memory. • Some structural differences in grey matter may be associated with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.
Prefrontal Cortex (Executive Function) Amygdala (Emotion) Hippocampus Healthy Brain Brain Atrophy
For more information: • The National Taiwan University Hospital Clinical Center of Neuroscience and Behavior (CCNB). • http://www.ntuh.gov.tw/en/ccnb/default.aspx • The NTU Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Science (GIBMS). • http://gibms.mc.ntu.edu.tw/ • The NTU Center for Neurobiology and Cognitive Science (CNCS). • http://neuroscience.ntu.edu.tw/
Subjective Well-Being (SWB) and Health • What constitutes health? • What is Wellbeing? Why is it important? • Introduction to Subjective Well-Being (SWB) • Factors of SWB - Genetics, Environmental, Spiritual aspects. • Current and Future Research Perspectives.
What Constitutes Health? • Universally accepted definition of health: a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or disability. • Health also refers to the presence of positive characteristics.
Mind Well-being generally means a healthy balance of : Body Spirit
Mind and Body: Mental Wellbeing affects Physical Wellbeing • Positive emotions have positive effects on physiology; especially in the case of the immune and cardiovascular system. • Negative emotions increase susceptibility to illness. • Mood can motivate healthy behaviors. • Positive emotions create social support.
Introduction to Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) • How do researchers objectively evaluate emotional well-being? • In the past, several scales were developed to accurately measure our self-perceived wellbeing.
Subjective Wellbeing (SWB): Taking place in the mind of an individual Subjective wellbeing consists of two components: 1) Life Satisfaction– an evaluation of a persons overall life. 2) Emotions- the presence of positive emotions and the absence of negative emotions.
Determinants of SWB • Genetics • Environmental factors • Spiritual factors
Determinants: Genetics • Feeling of wellbeing or lack of wellbeing can be inherited. • Genes can be responsible for both positive and negative emotions. • 80% of long-term SWB is heritable.
Genetics (cont): Personality • Personality is a very powerful way of predicting how a person will cope with positive and negative life events. • Personality leads different individuals to experience the same life events in a more positive or negative fashion
Genetics (cont): Personality • Each person has a normal level of SWB. • This level is predicted by personality characteristics (Introverted vs Extroverted etc). • Emotional stability and extroversion were positively related to SWB. • Neurotic personalities were negatively related.
Environmental Factors • Socioeconomic status: Education and income are strong predictors of SWB. • Health:Health is an important predictor of SWB at all ages and the strongest predictor of SWB during late life. • Social integration: Attachments to the social structure via community roles. • Social relationships and social support: Good relationship in marriage and with friends.
Interaction Between Genetic and Environmental Factors Genes may interact with environmental factors: • The same genes that affect early anxiety also influence later depression. • Early genetic effects of anxiety increase exposure to life events that increase risk to depression. • The genes that create early anxiety also make young people more prone to depression due to the effects of environmental adversity.
Spiritual Well-Being and Health • Higher levels of religious commitment are linked to longer lifespan. • Religious people may be less likely to make unhealthy lifestyle choices such as substance abuse and gambling. • Religion may facilitate healing through fostering spiritual growth. • Spirituality may enhance quality of life and help in the psychological recovery from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and even wound healing.
Spiritual Well-Being and Health • Both genetic and shared environmental influences contributed to the stability of religious values and religious attendance. +
Current and Future Research Perspectives • People are living longer and an important public health goal is to find ways to ensure these years are happy and healthy. • The identification of genetic and environmental factors associated with well- and ill- being will help develop targeted interventions. • These interventions aspire to foster greater health and happiness.
Research Perspectives • Our Center for Behavioral Genomics at UC San Diego hopes to conduct extensive measurement work on a large set of subjective well-being measures. • We hope to generate excellent well-being measures, and examine them throughout the life of a person. • It will enable us to apply these characteristics to genetic analyses in order to identify specific genes that are associated with dimensions of well-being.
Research Perspectives • The derived genetic data will be utilized to identify inherited well-being measures. • We will use already collected DNA and phenotypic data, which are enriched with well-being measures such as: • General wellbeing • Physical health • Psychological health
Research Perspectives • Molecular genetic studies may eventually discoverbiological reasons why some people remain happy and mentally healthy even inthe face of adversity. • If so, that could lead to pharmacologicstrategies and environmental interventions to advance well-being in our aging population and help contain health care costs.
Age Distribution OF NTUMCAA Membership >70 65-70 60-64 55-59 <55
Age Distribution of NTUMCAA-NA Alumni in 2012 Between 40 and 44 9 members (1%) Between 35 and 39 21 members (2%) Under 35 40 members (4%) Between 50 and 54 27 members (3%)
Canada South East Coast Central West Coast
NTUMCAA-NA: Our Future • We have reached a critical time in the history of our great organization. • How to keep a bridge open between NTU-MC and the alumni in North America after 2012? • How to provide guidance to NTUMC graduates who wish to advance their medical learning in North America? • How to provide assistance to NTUMC alumni in North America who wish to visit their alma mater? • What can alumni in North America do to assist NTUMC scholars from Taiwan? • How can we develop a plan for fundraising? • Any other suggestions or recommendations?